Slavery in America: Slavery in America US History
Lincoln High School
October 22, 2007 Essential Question: Essential Question
What is the history of slavery in the United States? Historical Overview: Historical Overview 1860-4 million enslaved African Americans lived in the southern U.S.
Most worked as plantation slaves producing cotton, tobacco, sugar and rice
Almost all born in U.S. A law was passed in 1808 that stopped the importation of slaves from Africa
Thousands still smuggled in after this date
12 to 13 million estimated torn from their lives in Africa dating from 1400s
http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/geography/slave_trade.htm “Contraband in Cumberland, VA (1862): “Contraband in Cumberland, VA (1862) Timeline: Timeline Began in North America around 1619
Dutch ship brought 20 enslaved Africans to Jamestown
Ended with the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which officially ended slavery in 1865
12 generation of blacks lived between these time periods
500,000 blacks brought to North America by European traders
European Castle on the coast of Secondee in West Africa: European Castle on the coast of Secondee in West Africa Creating Slavery: Creating Slavery Slavery dates to ancient times, including civilizations of Rome, Greece, Egypt, China, Northern Africa and the Middle East
The Spanish and Portugese (remember Columbus) increased the slave trade hugely
Result was the development of Europe and North America and the undevelopment of Africa and the rest of the Americas.
Development of “Western Powers”: Development of “Western Powers” “This new Atlantic World was unlike anything ever known before-linking the Americas to Africa and Europe in ways that resulted in the development of Europe and North America and the undevelopment of Africa and the rest of the Americas. It is not too much to say that profits made from slavery and the slave trade in the years from 1600 to 1860 greatly contributed to the emergence of Western Europe and the United States as the dominant nations of the world” (Ronald L. F. Davis, Ph. D., California State University, Northridge). Captives Below Deck: Captives Below Deck Rob Evans, 2001. Mariners' Museum. Public Record Office, London, Records of the Treasury T 70/957. Indentured Servitude (service): Indentured Servitude (service) Slaves worked alongside indentured servants until the early 1700s.
Indentured servants came from Europe and worked for their freedom.
6 year contracts
Plantation owners paid for their trip to the colonies, fed them and sheltered them
Cheaper than having slaves at this time Indentured Servitude (service): Indentured Servitude (service) Having indentured servants became more expensive because they started making more demands and were treated more humanely than slaves
Also less Europeans were coming to the colonies because industry in Britain increased
Plantation owners felt justified treating enslaved Africans like animals and treating them horribly because they felt superior (racism)
White Europeans were able to run away and not get caught because they could blend in with other colonists
Slavery increased a lot because of these reasons Bacon’s Rebellion: Bacon’s Rebellion 1676
Indentured servants, lower class farmers, and free black men were led by Nathaniel Bacon to attack Native Americans who had raided their farms
Armed rebellion then went to the government of Jamestown and burned the court house to the ground
Alliance scared the upper classes so they restored order and tried to turn the whites against the blacks by letting the indentured servants have guns and moving to use more slaves in a race-based system.
Huge turning point in slavery
To be white meant to be free and superior, in the eyes of the upper class elite. They wanted to keep their advantage. Bacon’s Rebellion: Bacon’s Rebellion Essential Question: Essential Question Why was slavery mainly in the southern colonies and not as common in the northern colonies? Northern Colonies: Northern Colonies New England and Pennsylvania had many Puritans and Quakers.
Difficult for them to fit slavery into their view of the perfect society they were trying to create
Cooler climate, abundance of white laborers, and the lack of a staple crop profitable for export created an economy that was diverse, not based on one thing
In 1750, about 400,000 blacks lived in the south, compared to about 50,000 in the north Southern Colonies: Southern Colonies 1750-90% of the population of South Carolina was black
Georgia originally started by England’s poor and formerly convicted had more blacks than whites in 1750
Whites attempted to use Native Americans as slaves.
Difficult because they were able to escape easily and knew the land well
Many blacks had come from the Caribbean where they were used to the kind of labor needed in the southern colonies and were efficient workers 3 Concessions of late 1700s: 3 Concessions of late 1700s Made to South by North during the Constitution
Fugitive Slave Act of 1793
3/5 Clause for representation in the House of Representatives and the Electoral College
Slave importation from Africa until 1808 Slavery at the time of Constitution: Slavery at the time of Constitution Seemed likely to fade out soon after-assumed by many in power
Most northern states had banned it by 1800
Congress had banned it in unorganized territories in the western states (Ohio)
Reasons for Increase: Reasons for Increase 3/5 Compromise kept many pro-slavery people in the government
Invention of cotton gin in 1793 increased production of cotton substantially
Jumped from 3,000 bales in 1790 to 200,000 bales in 1812
England turned primarily to cotton instead of wool, increased world demand
By 1860-4. 5 million bales, valued at 50% of U.S. exports Slide20: “Picking Cotton” Laws: Laws All of the slaveholding states adopted slave codes and laws that defined slaves as chattel property-human being with no human rights recognized in law
These laws governed practically all aspects of human life and activity for the enslaved
http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/geography/slavery_abolition_us.htm Birth Rates: Birth Rates Slaves in the US South reproduced in numbers equal to the white birth rate.
slaves tended to live in strong family environments
Planters understood that a family environment helped control slaves
breaking up the slave family worked to undermine slave rebellions and disobedience
planters understood that good medical care and tolerable working conditions enabled their slaves to live longer lives Surviving Slavery: Surviving Slavery Strong culture developed by African Americans
Family life central to culture
Slave marriages had no legal standing, most slaveholders allowed slaves to select their own mates
Offspring from a slave marriage became the property of the slaveholder who owned the enslaved mother
Enslaved children learned family history from their parents by the stories told to them while they worked along side their mothers (Oral tradition) “Puttin’ on the Massa”: “Puttin’ on the Massa” Parents often demonstrated these lessons by acting ignorant and even silly around whites while mocking them when they were out of sight. In this way, black parents showed their children how to cope with slavery by fooling the master without losing one's self respect Religion: Religion The enslaved turned to religion as a means of coping with slavery
Colonial era, most enslaved Africans retained as best they could their indigenous African religions or Islam in the cases of those who had come from Muslim countries
Mid 1700s, many enslaved African Americans converted to Christianity
Great Awakening More Culture: More Culture Blacks taught themselves a new language, practiced new art forms, and played a new kind of music that enabled them to endure the horrors of their bondage
Held onto parts of African speech and dialects through passing of generations Language and Culture: Language and Culture How are languages and culture connected?
How does language reflect your culture?
How has African languages influenced American English?