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Introduction to Embedded (Real Time) Systems Lecture 1 : 

Introduction to Embedded (Real Time) Systems Lecture 1

Thoughts for the Day: 

Thoughts for the Day Have a vision not clouded by fear. - Cherokee proverb The greatest virtues are those which are most useful to other persons. - Aristotle, 384-322 B.C.

Course Support: 

Course Support • TAs • Course Administrative Support • Lectures • Labs – A few evening lectures (likely Monday or Wednesday evenings 7-9 pm) – 24hour • Textbooks – None!


Pre-requisites Pre-requisites – CS 211: Fundamental Data Structures and Algorithms – ECE 240: Fundamentals of Computer Engineering – CS 213: Introduction to Computer Systems Or ECE 347: Introduction to Computer Architecture • Knowledge of C programming – just knowing Java could actually be harmful! • Need to know, understand and manipulate “pointers” • Basic knowledge of digital logic – basic gates and their truth tables • Assembly-language programming – the Intel Xscale® instruction set will be used in 18-349 – knowledge of instruction sets of other modern microprocessors (x86, ARM, PowerPC, 680x0, MIPS) should be a sufficient and necessary starting point • If you do not know assembly language programming, you need to spend Extra (ordinary?) effort in coming up to speed as soon as you can – Learning materials are available online on course web-site

Lab online: 

Lab online • 5 Lab projects – 100 points each – the 1st will be an individual project – labs 2, 3 and 4 will likely be in groups of 4 (or less) • all members must be present for project demonstrations and will be asked questions – the 5th project will be an individual project (a group-based version may be available as an alternative) – Most labs will have two parts

Miscellaneous Lab Information: 

Miscellaneous Lab Information Introducing…. The 18-349 X-board – Intel Xscale® Prototype board from Intel® + PCI Sound card + Keypad • Intel Xscale® Simulation software • New hardware and software • Real world tools: industrial grade (means there will be bugs!) • You probably will spend (waste) time because the environment is still relatively new • Most labs cannot be done in a day • We will require small group sizes

What are Embedded Systems?: 

What are Embedded Systems? Anything that uses a microprocessor but isn't a general-purpose computer – PDAs – Set-top boxes – Televisions – Video Games – Refrigerators – Cars – Planes – Elevators – Remote Controls – Alarm Systems • The user “sees” a smart (special-purpose) system as opposed to the computer inside the system • “how does it do that?” • “it has a computer inside it!” • “oh! BTW, it does not or cannot run Windows or MacOS!” – the end-user typically does not or cannot modify or upgrade the internals

Why are Embedded Systems important?: 

Why are Embedded Systems important? Engineering reasons – Why does a satellite need a Windows prompt ? – Does the McDonald’s POS (point-of-sale) terminal need MacOS? – Any device that needs to be controlled can be controlled by a microprocessor • Market reasons – The general-purpose computing market is in billions of US $ – The embedded systems market is also in billions of $ – In year 2000, about $2,700 of every car went to electronics • Pedagogical reasons – General-purpose system designers specialize – HW vs. SW • Embedded system designers are often – jackofmanytrades – Need to know hardware, software, and some combination of networking, control theory and signal processing – business models

What Are You Going to Learn?: 

What Are You Going to Learn? • Hardware – I/O, memory, busses, devices, control logic, interfacing hardware to software • Software – Lots of C and assembly, device drivers, low level OS issues, scheduling, – Concurrency • Software/Hardware interactions – Where is the best place to put functionality hardware or software? – What are the costs: • performance, • memory requirements (RAM and/or ROM) • Integration of hardware and software courses – Programming, logic design, architecture, – Algorithms, mathematics and common sense

Where Could You End Up?: 

Where Could You End Up? Automotive systems – perhaps designing and developing “drive-by-wire” systems • Telecommunications • Consumer electronics – cellular phones, MP3 devices, integrated cellular/walkman/PDA/kitchen sink – Set-top boxes and HDTV – Home appliances – Internet appliances • your washer will be on the internet more than you are! • Defense and weapon systems • Process control – gasoline processing, chemical refinement • Automated manufacturing – Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) • Space applications – Satellite communications

Goals of the Course: 

Goals of the Course High-Level Goals 1. Understand the scientific principles and concepts behind embedded systems, and 2. Obtain hands-on experience in programming embedded systems. By the end of the course, you must be able to • Understand the "big ideas" in embedded systems • Obtain direct hands-on experience on both hardware and software elements commonly used in embedded system design. • Understand basic real-time resource management theory • Understand the basics of embedded system application concepts such as signal processing and feedback control • Understand, and be able to discuss and communicate intelligently about – embedded processor architecture and programming – I/O and device driver interfaces to embedded processors with networks, multimedia cards and disk drives – OS primitives for concurrency, timeouts, scheduling, communication and synchronization

The Big Ideas: 

The Big Ideas HW/SW Boundary • Non processor centric view of architecture • Bowels of the operating system – specifically, the lower half of the OS – Concurrency • Realworld design – performance vs. cost tradeoffs • Analyzability – how do you “know” that your drive-by-wire system will function correctly? • Application-level techniques – signal processing, control theory

Grading Criteria: 

Grading Criteria Assignments – 200 points from 5 quizzes (50 points each, we drop the lowest score) – 300 points from 2 in-class exams – 500 points from 5 projects • ~50 points extra credit course development • Grading Scale – 90% 100% A – 80% 89% B – 70% 79% C – 60% 69% D – 0 59% R

Questions and Feedback: 

Questions and Feedback Grades will be available online • Post to the class discussion board from the web-page. • Talk to the professor if you have any concerns regarding anything related to the course. • The professor will want to talk with you if you are not doing well in class. • Mid-term survey to get your feedback. • You can also provide anonymous feedback anytime.


What are Embedded Systems anyway?

Embedded Systems: An Introduction : 

Embedded Systems: An Introduction • What is an embedded system? – More than just a computer • What makes embedded systems different? – Real-time operation – Many sets of constraints on designs • size • cost • time • reliability • safety • energy • security • What embedded system designers need to know? – The “big” picture – Skills required to be an “expert” in this area

What is an Embedded System?: 

• Computer purchased as part of some other piece of equipment – Typically dedicated software (may be user customizable) – Often replaces previously electromechanical components – Often no “real” keyboard – Often limited display or no general purpose display device • But, every system is unique there are always exceptions What is an Embedded System?

CPU: An All-Too-Common View of Computing: 

CPU: An All-Too-Common View of Computing • Measured by: – Performance

An Advanced Computer Engineer's View: 

An Advanced Computer Engineer's View • Measured by: Performance • Compilers matter too...

An Enlightened Computer Engineer's View: 

An Enlightened Computer Engineer's View • Measured by: Performance, Cost Compilers & OS matters

An Embedded Computer Designer's View: 

An Embedded Computer Designer's View • Measured by: Cost, I/O connections, Memory Size, Performance

An Embedded Control System Designer's View: 

An Embedded Control System Designer's View • Measured by: Cost, Time to market, Cost, Functionality, Cost & Cost.

A Customer View: 

– Reduced Cost – Increased Functionality – Improved Performance – Increased Overall Dependability A Customer View

Some Embedded System Examples: 

Some Embedded System Examples • Pocket remote control RF transmitter – 100 KIPS, water/crushproof, fits in pocket, 5year battery life – Software handcrafted for small size (less than 1 KB) • Industrial equipment controller (e.g., elevator; jet engine) – 110 MIPS for 1 to 10 CPUs, 1 8MB memory – Safety critical software; real time control loops • Military signal processing (e.g., Radar/Sonar) – 1 GFLOPS, 1 GB/sec I/O, 32 MB memory – Software handcrafted for extremely high performance

Embedded Computers Rule the Marketplace: 

Embedded Computers Rule the Marketplace • ~80 Million PCs vs. ~3 Billion Embedded CPUs annually – Embedded market growing; PC market mostly saturated

Why Are Embedded Systems Different? : 

Why Are Embedded Systems Different? Four General Categories of Embedded Systems • General Computing – Applications similar to desktop computing, but in an embedded package – Video games, set top boxes, wearable computers, automatic tellers • Control Systems – Closed loop feedback control of real time system – Vehicle engines, chemical processes, nuclear power, flight control • Signal Processing – Computations involving large data streams – Radar, Sonar, video compression • Communication & Networking – Switching and information transmission – Telephone system, Internet

Types of Embedded System Functions: 

Types of Embedded System Functions • Control Laws – PID control – Fuzzy logic, ... • Sequencing logic – Finite state machines – Switching modes between control laws • Signal processing – Multimedia data compression – Digital filtering • Application specific interfacing – Buttons, bells, lights,... – High speed I/O • Fault response – Detection & reconfiguration – Diagnosis • ...

Distinctive Embedded System Attributes: 

Distinctive Embedded System Attributes • Reactive: computations occur in response to external events – Periodic events (e.g., rotating machinery and control loops) – Aperiodic events (e.g., button closures) • Real-Time: timing correctness is part of system correctness – Hard real-time • Absolute deadline, beyond which answer is useless • May include minimum time as well as maximum time – Soft real-time • Missing a deadline is not catastrophic • Utility of answer degrades with time difference from deadline – Example: • a train is entering an urban area... • the railway gate in the city allows automotive traffic to go over the tracks • when should the railway gate close? In general, Real Time != “Real Fast”

Typical Embedded System Constraints: 

Typical Embedded System Constraints • Small Size, Low Weight – Handheld electronics – Transportation applications weight costs money • Low Power – Battery power for 8+ hours (laptops often last only 2 hours) – Limited cooling may limit power even if AC power available • Harsh environment – Heat, vibration, shock – Power fluctuations, RF interference, lightning – Water, corrosion, physical abuse • Safety critical operation – Must function correctly – Must not function incorrectly • Extreme cost sensitivity – $.05 adds up over 1,000,000 units

Embedded System Design World-View: 

Embedded System Design World-View A complex set of tradeoffs: • Optimize for more than just speed • Consider more than just the computer • Take into account more than just initial product design Multi-Discipline • Electronic Hardware • Software • Mechanical Hardware • Control Algorithms • Humans • Society/Institutions MultiObjective • Dependability • Affordability • Safety • Security • Scalability • Timeliness MultiPhase • Requirements • Design • Manufacturing • Deployment • Logistics • Retirement x x

Mission Critical Applications Require Robustness: 

Mission Critical Applications Require Robustness • Loss of Arianne inaugural flight in June, 1996 – Lost a $400 million scientific payload (the rocket was extra) • Efforts to reduce system costs led to the failure – Reuse of Inertial Reference System software from Ariane 4 – Improperly handled exception caused by variable overflow during – new flight profile (that wasn't simulated because of cost/schedule) – 64bit float converted to 16bit int assumed not to overflow • Exception caused dual hardware shutdown (software doesn't fail!) • What really happened? – The narrow view: it was a software bug fix it – The broad view: the loss was caused by a lack of system robustness in an exceptional (unanticipated) situation Many embedded systems must be robust

Software Drives Designs: 

Software Drives Designs • Hardware is mostly a recurring cost – Cost proportional to number of units manufactured • Software is a “one time” nonrecurring engineering design cost (NRE) – Paid for ``only once'' • But bug fixes may be expensive, or impossible – Cost is related to complexity & number of functions – Market pressures lead to feature creep • Software Is NOT free!!!!!

Life Cycle Concerns Figure Prominently: 

Life Cycle Concerns Figure Prominently • “Let's use a CAD system to re-synthesize designs for cost optimization” – Automatically use whatever components are cheap that month – Would permit quick responses to bids for new variants – Track record of working fine for PC motherboards • Why wouldn't it work for an automotive application? – Embedded systems had more analog than digital mostly digital synthesis tool – Cost of recertification for safety, FCC, warrantee repair rate – Design optimized for running power, not idle power • Car batteries must last a month in a parking lot – Parts cost didn't take into account lifecycle concerns • Price breaks for large quantities • Inventory, spares, end of life buy costs – Tool didn't put designs on a single sheet of paper • Archive system paper-based -- how else do you read – 20 year old files?

Embedded System Designer Skill Set: 

Embedded System Designer Skill Set • Appreciation for multidisciplinary nature of design – Both hardware & software skills – Understanding of engineering beyond digital logic – Ability to take a project from specification through production • Communication & teamwork skills – Work with other disciplines, manufacturing, marketing – Work with customers to understand the real problem being solved – Make a good presentation; even better write ``trade rag'' articles • And, by the way, technical skills too... – Low-level: Microcontrollers, FPGA/ASIC, assembly language, A/D, D/A – High-level: Object oriented Design, C/C++, Real Time Operating Systems – Meta-level: Creative solutions to highly constrained problems – Likely in the future: Unified Modeling Language, embedded networks – (Un)certain future: Java, Windows CE


Review • What is an embedded system? – More than just a computer it's a complete system • What makes embedded systems different? – Many sets of constraints on designs – Four general types: • General-Purpose • Control • Signal Processing • Communications • What embedded system designers need to know ? – Multi-objective: cost, dependability, performance, etc. – Multidiscipline: hardware, software, electromechanical, etc. – Life-cycle: specification, design, prototyping, deployment, support, retirement