His 102 Changing Minds and Hearts (SU_Week 2)

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This week we look at the confluence of events that led to dramatic changes in Europe; the printing press, the enlightenment, the protestant reformation, and more. How people react, and justfy their reactions, to events and dilemmas are still with us today.

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Change of Minds & Hearts:

Change of Minds & Hearts Reform & Counter-Reform

Caveat:

Caveat European changes have profound impact on the world stage Europe NOT the only history Other civilizations being ‘caught up to’ by Europe Emergence of Colonialism not a given

Terms:

Terms Liberalism: The belief in individual freedom, learning, tolerance of others, and progress through the “liberation” of people’s hearts and minds Conservatism: The belief that preserving, or ‘conserving,’ old ways of thinking and society provided stability, predictability, and social tranquility in the face of “radical” liberation Reactionary: A response to change, often a Conservative one, that threatens upheaval of the social order.

Europe Changing:

Europe Changing ~15 th century – 18 th century Technological advances Printing press Theological debates Protestantism Philosophical debates Enlightenment Economic debates Mercantilism, Capitalism

Confluence of Events:

Confluence of Events Moveable Type Cheap, easily reproduced mass market publications Control of literacy out of Church’s hands Increased economic wealth, resources Exploitation of West hemi. Gold, produce, land Shifts how money is made, who has power Dissolution of European “Christian” identity Smaller, weaker states able to break from Catholic church New ideas Emerge Economics, government, rights of man, etc.

More dangerous than Gunpowder:

More dangerous than Gunpowder Johannes Gutenberg’s Bible ca 1450 Takes printing, dissemination of knowledge out of hands of Church, monks New technology allows for emergence of newspapers

Why is it Important?:

Why is it Important? Think about Blogs, Tweets, Facebook, cable news, Wikipedia, cell phones What if it all went “dark”? How would you know what was happening in your community? In the world? Would you know about international incidents? Presidential speeches? Newest inventions? How dependent are we upon information?

Alteration of the Economy:

Alteration of the Economy Pre-New World ‘Discovery’ Elites owned land Land was source of wealth (crops, timber, wool, etc.) Non-Elites worked land, made cities run Post-New World ‘Discovery’ Trade emerges as prime economic mover Elites still own land New opportunities to become ‘elite’ New economic system takes advantage of colonies, new resources

Mercantilism:

Mercantilism European countries’ exclusive trade with colonies Colonies produce raw material Homelands refine into finished products Colonies purchase finished products Money returns to homeland Colonies forbidden to trade with other countries Smuggling Piracy Privateering Triangle Trade

Slavery:

Slavery Need for manpower in New World Tap into existing slave trade network Africans initially treated as ‘indentured servants’ Character of slavery changes in New World relatively quickly Massive, unwilling diaspora of Africans into New World Bring elements of African culture Voodoo, Gospel music, ‘soul’ food, etc.

Food for Thought:

Food for Thought How does “Liberalism” justify the enslavement of whole populations from Africa, Americas? How does “Conservatism” Justify the enslavement of whole populations from Africa, Americas? What is “Cognitive Dissonance”?

Critique of Mercantilism:

Critique of Mercantilism Adam Smith (Scottish economist) publishes new theory: Capitalism An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (“Wealth of Nations”) State-run monopolies inherently inefficient, unfair Capitalism unobstructed by Gov’t will distribute wealth more fairly Competition Entrepreneurship End of slavery? Published 1776

95 Theses:

95 Theses 1517 – Martin Luther critiques Catholic church practice, dogma Salvation comes from God, not works Laymen could be own priests Marriage of clergy renounces celibacy in priests Publication of Bible in ‘vernacular’ instead of Latin Average people could read, learn from bible No need for Church interpretation Emergence of schism between European countries, principalities

Religious Upheaval:

Religious Upheaval Inquisition in Spain, Portugal to root out dissent Strict enforcement of Catholicism Reformations in Switzerland, Germany, England Martin Luther one of many Ex. John Calvin (1536) & Calvinism Henry VIII quarrel over marriage, divorce Anglican church 1553 & purge of Catholics

Religious Differences:

Religious Differences Attempts to reconcile Catholics, Reformers fails Resentment on both sides Regional differences may have exacerbated relations Ex. England & Henry VIII’s divorce/murder of wives Internal & External politics drive repression, wars French Huguenots, English Catholics Muslim Ottoman Empire may have helped support Protestant countries through ‘gifts’ Europe off balance, divided

30 Years’ War:

30 Years’ War 1618 – 1648 Almost every country in Europe embroiled in Religious-based conflict Lutheran v. Lutheran, Catholic v. Catholic Calvinist v. Lutheran Catholic v. Protestant Series of interlocking alliances fueled passion for war as much as religious fervor did Religious hatred left no room for negotiation

Intellectual Revolution:

Intellectual Revolution “Enlightenment” ca. ~1630’s – 1800 Human intellect can tackle any problem Distrusting of dogma, “faith” which tore Europe apart Question legitimacy of status quo Establishes basis for new European inquiry into natural world Politics Science Anti-Religion

Some Examples:

Some Examples John Locke & natural rights of man “Life, liberty & acquisition of property” Possession stems from own work, not decree of King Voltaire Freedom of religion, freedom of trade, civil liberties Friends with Benjamin Franklin Renee Descartes ‘father of philosophy’ Existence only provable by existence of thought Cogito ergo sum

Conservative Reaction:

Conservative Reaction Emergence of new, educated Middle Class driven by wealth, Enlightenment, Reformation Challenge to status quo, Royal authority Anti-liberalism: mistrust of radical concepts such as Democracy, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, natural rights of man, etc.

Sliding Scale:

Sliding Scale Imperial/Royal reactions to Liberalism varied by ruler, time frame, political climate Ex. Russia; Peter the Great “Enlightened Absolutist” used authoritarian power to force Russia to modernize along Enlightenment lines Ex. France; Louis XIV used power of the throne to quash dissent, anti-Catholic, and liberalist movements Je suis etat = I am the state

Homework:

Homework McKay et. al. : Africa & The World, and The Islamic World Powers Discussion Board = preparation for Essay in Quiz, engage in Historical debate (and use of sources) Changes & Double Duty

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