101_The Mongols(Week 6 TAP)

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This week, we look at the Mongols and their disruptions of the old orders in China, the Middle East, and beyond, and how those disruptions lead to a whole new world; how Russia becomes an Empire, how the Ottoman Turks establish their dominion, and how Europeans are inspired to explore.

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The Mongols & The World:

The Mongols & The World FOR THE HORDE!

Who?:

Who? One of many ethno-tribal groups on the Mongolian Plateau Tartars Turks Mongols Merkits Climate & Geography prevent foundation of settled agriculture Nomadic tribes centered around protection of herds, acquisition of territory Occasional trade with China, beyond More frequent raids on China Great Wall

Mongols & China (Jin Dynasty):

Mongols & China ( Jin Dynasty) Mongols nearly collapse northern Jin Dynasty 12 th century Kabul Khan (Grandfather of Temujin ) barely defeated Chinese foreign policy changes from defense to interference Foster wars between tribes Mongols & Tartars Off balance steppe warriors cannot invade What do you think of the “Divide and Disrupt” policy of China?

Temujin:

Temujin Temujin’s father betrayed by Tartars & dies Harsh lessons of tribal life Blood feuds, thievery, corruption, interference by Chinese Builds alliances & alters rules of war & loyalty Harsh penalties for offenders Combined Tartar & Chinese army disrupts Temujin’s plans…temporarily Cultivates spy network to gain intelligence of rivals Understanding rivals helps undo plots, schemes Adaptation of new technologies quickly

The Great King!:

The Great King! Temujin’s spy network, strong internal policy, strong alliances allow him to conquer inner Mongolian Steppes by 1203 Ruthless conquests leave no possibility for revenge or disobedience Measure against the linchpin all males captured from rebellious tribes, families Women sold into slavery 1206 Conferred title of “Genghis Khan” – “Widespread, Just, Powerful King”

Early Mongol Empire: 1206:

Early Mongol Empire: 1206 Early Mongol Empire occupied m/d Siberia, Mongolia, northern China

Adaptation, Tactics, and New Technology:

Adaptation, Tactics, and New Technology Mongol bows use multiple materials to strengthen, increase power of bows “Composite” bow Accurate between 230- 500 meters Siege warfare adopted from, applied to Chinese fortifications Biological warfare Mongols, especially Genghis Khan, open to all philosophies, religions Buddhist Daoist Confucian Christian Muslim

How to win people & influence Nations:

How to win people & influence Nations Genghis’ childhood marked by poverty, slavery, violence Loot taken from conquest shared amongst families (not just lords) Administrative records to track need, distribute food, shelter as needed Poor exempt from taxes Freedom of religion Meritocracy Promotion of trade internally, externally

Mongol Reputation:

Mongol Reputation Pragmatic approach to life, death Brutal because war (and life) is brutal Reputation precedes armies Value of a vicious reputation? Horses Human Shieds Ultimatums & follow-through Mercenaries & loyalist swell army to 100,000+ strong

Mongol Expansion:

Mongol Expansion Chinese first victims of Mongol expansion Revenge for interference, death of father Siege of Beijing brings majority of China under “Yuan” Dynasty control 1211 Khwarzemid Empire in Afghanistan, Persia eyed as trading partner by Genghis Khan Utilizing Silk Road to expand wealth, prosperity of Mongol people Deadly insults replied with force “The disaster is upon you” 200,000warriors Destruction of whole cities Silver death

Pax Mongolica:

Pax Mongolica Mongol conquests killed hundreds of thousands of people across Eurasia The first “Green” conqueror? – CO2 levels drop by 700 million tons Reduction of trade barriers from national borders New levels of luxury & new products flood East & West Communication across vast empire emphasized “Pony Express” Mongol protection

Apex of Mongol Empire 1279:

Apex of Mongol Empire 1279

Mongol Succession:

Mongol Succession Genghis Khan dies 1227 CE Leaves empire in communal trust of his family, close friends Son, Ogedai , undisputed ruler….at first Ogedai leads push into Russia, Central Asia Brings Rus into fold of Empire Extracts tribute from Indian princes Death of Ogedai brings division Empire fractured BUT some descendants of Genghis Khan still hold power Hulegu Khan, Kublai Khan

A Divided Empire 1294:

A Divided Empire 1294

Spotlight: Marco Polo & Pax Mongolica:

Spotlight: Marco Polo & Pax Mongolica Venetian trader, Marco Polo & family, depart Italy 1260 Begin 24 year, 15,000 mile odyssey to China & back Meets Kublai Khan Cultural exchange Tries to introduce Chinese inventions Paper money, coal, herbology & acupuncture Pasta? Maps of Asia Inspired Columbus’ decision to find new routes

The Vincible Mongols:

The Vincible Mongols Mongol conquests crushed all who opposed them, generally Kwarzemid Empire Seljuk Turks Kievan Russians Chinese Stopped in only 2 instances Battle of Ayn Jalut , Sep 1260 CE Mamluk rulers of Egypt turn back small- ish Mongol horde Twin invasions of Japan, 1274 & 1280CE Luck, weather help Sengoku Japanese turn back invasion “Kamikaze” Last threat to invasion for nearly 500 years

Mongol Legacy:

Mongol Legacy Power shifts in Russia from Kiev to Moscow, allows for the rise of the Romanov Csars who would rule Russia until 1917 Europeans aware of Asia like never before Trade & maps Marco Polo Black Death sweeps along trade routes Japanese victory sets up short-lived Imperial period Dissolution of Imperial power sidelines Emperor’s authority until 1850s Seljuk weakness affords Ottoman Turks opportunity to consolidate power eventually Control over Anatolia makes Ottomans premier Turkish power

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