a rationale for biodiversity conservation

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A rationale for biodiversity conservation: 

A rationale for biodiversity conservation Views on nature conservation – about philosophy & ethics

Overheads & Slides required: 

Overheads & Slides required OH Cartoon: “YO, AMIGO!! We need that tree to protect us from the greenhouse effect. OH (3) Portraits J.Muir, G.Pinchot & A.Leopold SL Goa Lawah SL Tanah Lot SL Hydrophiidae SL Toa Payoh – Buddhist temple in Singapore SL Ganesha SL Wisent – Bison bonasus in Hellabrunn SL Pinguinus impennis (Great Auk) SL Dodo (die Tronte) – Didus ineptus

Conservation of neotropical biodiversity: 

Conservation of neotropical biodiversity Biodiversity: the main challenges A rationale for biodiversity conservation Lessons from island biogeography The value of biodiversity Small and other fragile populations Overexploitation: a scrutiny of wildlife trade

Are the reasons for biodiversity conservation obvious?: 

Are the reasons for biodiversity conservation obvious?

Views on nature conservation: about philosophy and ethics: 

Views on nature conservation: about philosophy and ethics Realms and the obvious rationale Natural monuments People and nature Europe North America John Muir Gifford Pinchot Aldo Leopold Ethical arguments reviewed Conclusions

Realms of Justifications for Biodiversity Conservation: 

Realms of Justifications for Biodiversity Conservation Human centered Aesthetical Recreational Economic Scientific Life centered Nature centered (Holistic) Theistic (-) (+) (-) IPN study of German pupils

Realms of Justifications for Biodiversity Conservation: 

Realms of Justifications for Biodiversity Conservation Human centered Aesthetical Recreational Economic Scientific Life centered Nature centered (Holistic) Theistic Justification Selfishness Altruism

A rationale for biodiversity conservation: the selfish obvious: 

A rationale for biodiversity conservation: the selfish obvious Food Medicine Materials Water supply Climate regulation Science & technology Selfishness and our survival drive: If our survival depends on the conservation of biodiversity, then let us protect it.

Conservation of natural monuments: some parallels: 

Conservation of natural monuments: some parallels

Conservation of natural monuments: some parallels: 

Conservation of natural monuments: some parallels Unique Created over millenia Appealing to human appreciation Irreplaceable

Views on nature conservation: ethics: 

“For the Kuna culture, the land is our mother and all living things that we live on are brothers in such a manner that we must take care of her and live in a harmonious manner on her, because the extinction of one thing is also the end of another.” Views on nature conservation: ethics Kuna delegate -4th World Wilderness Congress, 1987

Views on nature conservation: ethics: 

Views on nature conservation: ethics

Views on nature conservation: Europe: 

Views on nature conservation: Europe Christian anthropocentrism: nature for human´s use and benefit. Since XVIth century: overexploitation of colonial territories - ignoring the needs and knowledge of natives. Scientific officers in colonies of XIXth century: forest prevents erosion, maintains wood supply and prevents famine.

Views on nature conservation: Europe: 

Island of Mauritius (France):1679 -extinction of dodo (Didus ineptus) within 80 years. Views on nature conservation: Europe Island of Mauritius (France): 1769 - 25% to remain forested, reforestation of degraded areas, protection of forests within 200 m of water, regulation of discharges from indigo and sugar mills.

Views on nature conservation: Europe: 

Views on nature conservation: Europe India (Great Britain): 1852 extensive system of forest reserves to maintain rainfall and water supplies. Adopted in SE Asia, Australia & Africa.

Views on nature conservation: Europe: 

In EUROPE 1564: decline of aurochs (Bos primigenius) leads to forest reserve in Poland (Bialowieza N.P. 5069 ha). 1627: extinction of aurochs, but survival of last population of wisent (Bison bonasus)... until 1921. 1952 reintroduction from captive breeding. Views on nature conservation: Europe

Views on nature conservation: Europe: 

Views on nature conservation: Europe Late XIXth century in GB: extinction of great bustards (Otis tarda), ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), sea eagles (Halieaetus albicilla) and great auk (Pinguinus impennis). Founding of conservation NGO’s (e.g. RSPB, National Trust) Management of highly fragmented landscape (today: 1% in nature reserves).

Views on nature conservation: North America: 

Views on nature conservation: North America John Muir - Preservationist Ethic Gifford Pinchot - Resource Conservation Ethic Aldo Leopold - Evolutionary Ecological Land Ethic

Slide19: 

John Muir (1838-1914) Preservationist Ethic

John Muir (1838-1914) Preservationist Ethic: 

John Muir (1838-1914) Preservationist Ethic Natural areas: emotional refreshment, religious and spiritual experiences. Spiritual value higher than tangible material gain. Philosophers, poets, artists, spiritual minds and any human who requires the stimuli of natural beauty for their growth. Creative drive, peace of mind, contemplation of natural beauty. Recognized value of nature experiences for health, mental sharpness and productivity.

John Muir (continued): 

John Muir (continued) Intrinsic value: value in and of itself, apart from its value to humanity. People have an equal place with all other species in God’s scheme of nature. Biological communities - interdependence.

A rationale for biodiversity conservation: 

A rationale for biodiversity conservation Recreation Inspiration Spiritual stimulation Contemplation Peace of mind Selfishness (and our survival drive): If our well being and/or survival depend on the conservation of biodiversity, then let us protect it. Food Medicine Materials Water supply Climate regulation Science & technology

How do we use and at the same time protect biodiversity?: 

How do we use and at the same time protect biodiversity? Management, protection, control, legislation, education Natural resources approach Ecosystem approach

Slide24: 

Gifford Pinchot (1865-1946, U.S. Forestry Service) Resource Conservation Ethic

Gifford Pinchot (1865-1946, U.S. Forestry Service) Resource Conservation Ethic: 

Gifford Pinchot (1865-1946, U.S. Forestry Service) Resource Conservation Ethic The world: humans - natural resources Adequate use: promotes the greatest benefit for the largest number of people at the longest term. Long term perspective in the management and control of natural resources to ensure conservation.

Gifford Pinchot Resource Conservation Ethic: 

Gifford Pinchot Resource Conservation Ethic 1. Principle: fair distribution of benefits between present consumers and between present and future generations. Sustainable use component Monetary value of natural resources

Gifford Pinchot (continued): 

Gifford Pinchot (continued) Definitions of Sustainable Development “... Development in accord with present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to satisfy their own needs.” (World Commission for the Environment and Development 1987) “... Development that satisfies in the best way the present and future human needs, without deteriorating neither the environment nor the biodiversity.” (Lubchenco et al. 1991, Conservation Biology)

Gifford Pinchot (continued): 

Gifford Pinchot (continued) 2. Principle: efficiency 2.1 avoid waste. 2.2. prioritize: some uses may take precedence over others. 2.3 multiple uses possible. 2.4 uses for aesthetic or intellectual value may take precedence over extractive uses.

Gifford Pinchot (continued): 

Gifford Pinchot (continued) Resource economics based on market forces may disregard the costs of environmental degradation and ignore the future value of resources. Therefore: regulate and control natural resources with long-term perspective. US Forestry Service US Nat. Parks Service

Slide30: 

Aldo Leopold (1886-1948) Evolutionary Ecological Land Ethic

Aldo Leopold (1886-1948) Evolutionary Ecological Land Ethic: 

Aldo Leopold (1886-1948) Evolutionary Ecological Land Ethic Pinchot´s Resource Conservation Ethic: the land as a collection of (isolated) material goods to be used by humans.

Leopold’s Nature: 

Leopold’s Nature Landscape organized as a system of interrelated processes which include humans as a component.

Aldo Leopold Evolutionary Ecological Land Ethic: 

Aldo Leopold Evolutionary Ecological Land Ethic Goal: to maintain the health of natural ecosystems and ecological processes. Management: ecosystems rather than particular resources only, enhancing biodiversity and their future value for humans. National forests set aside as wilderness areas.

Aldo Leopold: 

Aldo Leopold Overexploitation and total control over nature Preservation and no interference at all with natural processes Use of the land compatible with maintenance and even enhancement of biodiversity

Aldo Leopold (1886-1948): Evolutionary-Ecological Land Ethic: 

Aldo Leopold (1886-1948): Evolutionary-Ecological Land Ethic “Conservation is a state of harmony between men and land. By land is meant all of the things on, over or in the earth. ... you cannot love game and hate predators, you cannot conserve the waters and waste the ranges, you cannot build the forest and mine the farm. The land is one organism. Its parts, like our own parts, compete with each other and cooperate with each other. ... You can regulate them - cautiously- but not abolish them.”

Aldo Leopold (1886-1948): Evolutionary-Ecological Land Ethic: 

Aldo Leopold (1886-1948): Evolutionary-Ecological Land Ethic “The outstanding scientific discovery of the 20th century is not television, or radio, but rather the complexity of the land organism. Only those who know the most about it can appreciate how little we know about it”.

Aldo Leopold: 

Aldo Leopold “The last word in ignorance is the man who says of an animal or plant “What good is it?” If the land mechanism as a whole is good, then every part is good, whether we understand it or not. If the biota, in the course of aeons, has built something we like but do not understand, then who but a fool would discard seemingly useless parts? To keep every cog and wheel is the first precaution of intelligent tinkering.”

Views on nature conservation: The World Today: 

Views on nature conservation: The World Today Balancing long-term needs of protecting biological diversity with immediate needs for natural resources Preservationist ethic Resource conservation ethic Evolutionary-ecological land ethic Despite debate and differences of opinion, protect as much of the natural world as possible.

Ethical arguments for biodiversity conservation: 

Ethical arguments for biodiversity conservation 1. Every species has a right to exist. 2. The custody over nature is an agreement with God. 3. All species are interdependent. 4. We have obligations toward our neighbours. 5. We have obligations toward the next generations. 6. Respect for human life and diversity is compatible with respect for biodiversity. … a sufficient justification for biodiversity conservation? …

“Every species has a right to exist.”: 

“Every species has a right to exist.” Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald (243 km2) “Die Nationalparke der Welt dienen einem Ziel: NATUR NATUR SEIN LASSEN.” “Jede Nation hat die Pflicht, ihr Naturerbe zu erhalten, die natürlichen Lebensgemeinschaften um ihrer selbst Willen zu schützen – als Orte der Begegnung von Mensch und ursprünglicher Natur.” “WILDNIS erleben – tagelang, wochenlang. In Deutschland.”

A rationale for biodiversity conservation: 

A rationale for biodiversity conservation Recreation Inspiration Spiritual stimulation Contemplation Peace of mind Moral obligation Religious belief Selfishness and altruism: If our well being and survival, as well as that of future generations, depend on the conservation of all biodiversity, then let us protect it. It is the right thing to do. Food Medicine Materials Water supply Climate regulation Science & technology

Statement of principles: the basis of conservation biology: 

Statement of principles: the basis of conservation biology The diversity of organisms is good (biophilia, uses) The untimely extinction of populations and species is bad Ecological complexity is good (preservation of wild lands) Evolution is good (new species, increased biological diversity) Biological diversity has intrinsic value

Perspectives Russel Mittermeier (Conservation International and IUCN SSC/Primate Specialist Group): 

Perspectives Russel Mittermeier (Conservation International and IUCN SSC/Primate Specialist Group) Society horrified if: Louvre Museum or Staatsbibliothek or La Casona is set on fire Bomb attack on the Pyramids or Taj Majal A species is driven to extinction ...? Every day there is a fire in the Amazon, Madagascar or the Phillipines. THE DAMAGE IS IRREVERSIBLE. “...if we can make the loss of every species a cause for global mourning... we could be well on our way to achieving success.”

Perspectives Russel Mittermeier (Conservation International and IUCN SSC/Primate Specialist Group): 

Perspectives Russel Mittermeier (Conservation International and IUCN SSC/Primate Specialist Group) “We need to mobilize the human and financial resources at a level at least one and more likely two orders of magnitude beyond anything previously realized” Alliances between NGO’s, government, local communities and private sector.

Perspectives : 

Perspectives “Humans are the cause of this deteriorating situation, which is increasingly being referred to as the sixth extinction crisis. But people also have the responsibility and the ability to reverse the situation. To do this will take both knowledge and commitment.” The IUCN Species Survival Commission (2000):

A rationale for biodiversity conservation: Conclusions: 

A rationale for biodiversity conservation: Conclusions It is necessary to use nature, but not all use of nature is necessary. There are good anthropocentric arguments for the conservation of biodiversity. There are arguments of belief and good ethical reasons, such as our moral obligations, for the conservation of biodiversity. Joint efforts toward a common goal: the conservation of biodiversity … for whatever reason.