application of physics in sports

Category: Sports

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-Group members:- : 

-Group members:- Shubham Mandwekar Vedang Bamnote Pranay Bhaphar Sanket Mathurkar Sagar Jhunjhunwala Rushikesh Tayade Rishit Sharma

Introduction : 

Introduction Physics plays a dominant role in the way athletes perform and the way the sport is played. Almost in every sport there is a great importance of physics.

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Physics has two main domains of study one is macroscopic and the other is microscopic. Classical physics deals with macroscopic phenomena which may be at the laboratory, terrestrial and astronomical scales. Quantum physics deals with microscopic phenomena at the minute scale of atoms, molecules and nuclei. Types of physics


BASIC TERMS IN PHYSICS Motion: The body said is in motion if its position changes with respect to time.   Rest: A body said to be in rest if its position does not changes with respect to time.

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Scalar Quantities: The physical quantities which can only be calculated by their magnitudes are called the scalar quantities, such as time, distance etc.   Vector Quantities: The physical quantities which can completely be described by their magnitude and the direction are called the vector quantities, such as displacement, velocity, force etc.

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DISPLACEMENT : It is defined as the change in the position of the object in a fixed direction. It is given by the vector drawn from initial position to the final position of the object. MOMENTUM : Momentum is the product of the mass and velocity of an object (p = mv). Distance: It is the length of the actual path travelled by the body between its initial and the final positions.

Three laws of Newton : 

Three laws of Newton

Newton’s First Law : 

Newton’s First Law Objects at rest remain at rest until a force is applied to the object. Objects in motion remains in motion unless and until external force is acted on it.

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Example :- An object remains in the state of rest unless and until a force is applied on it.

Newton’s Second Law : 

Newton’s Second Law The rate of change of momentum of an object is proportional to the applied unbalanced force in the direction of the force . F = m x a

Example :- : 

Example :- During the game of table tennis if the ball hits a player it does not hurt him. But on other hand, when a fast moving cricket ball hits a spectator ,it may hurt him.

Newton’s Third Law : 

Newton’s Third Law For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction and they acts on different bodies. Action and reaction forces are equal and opposite.

Example :- : 

Example :- In the game of football sometimes while looking to kick it with a greater force, collide with a player of the opposite team. But both feel hurt because each applies a force to the other.



Basketball : 


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Spin on the Ball Spinning the ball when you shoot is not done to affect air resistance, or to make air resistance cause the ball's path to curve, as is the case in baseball. Basketballs move too slowly for that to happen. Once the basketball leaves the shooter's hand, it travels in an unchanging parabolic path.

Bouncing the Ball : 

Bouncing the Ball The more air pressure basketball has inside it, the less its surface will bend or deform during a bounce, and the more its original energy will be stored in the compressed air inside.The floor in which the ball is bounced also affect the height of the ball.

Backspin Backspin on the ball is used to help it to bounce into the net when it hits the rim. It will usually hit something, unless the throw was very high. The backspin, after contact with the back rim or board, will result in a change in velocity opposite to the spin direction, changing an equal-angle rebound into a velocity more toward the net. This makes it more likely that the ball will go in. : 

Backspin Backspin on the ball is used to help it to bounce into the net when it hits the rim. It will usually hit something, unless the throw was very high. The backspin, after contact with the back rim or board, will result in a change in velocity opposite to the spin direction, changing an equal-angle rebound into a velocity more toward the net. This makes it more likely that the ball will go in.

Flight Path : 

Flight Path

Soccer : 


Spinning a Ball While in the air : 

Spinning a Ball While in the air In this view of a spinning soccer ball, the closer the air is to the center of the ball, the faster it travels. The pressure on a ball can be reduced if the ball is rotating the same as the airflow.

Spinning a Ball While in the air : 

Spinning a Ball While in the air When the pressure is low on one side of the ball, the other side has high pressure and this pressure difference between the two sides of the balls cause the ball to swerve to one side.

Headers and use of vectors : 

Headers and use of vectors When aiming a header, vectors must be taken into consideration. According to physics, “the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.” Therefore, to aim the header, one must head the ball in the direction from which it was served.

Headers and use of vectors : 

Headers and use of vectors To obtain the final speed and direction of the soccer ball, the following vectors must be combined: the motion of the head, the motion of the ball, and the bounce –reflection- off of the head.

New development : 

New development A new soccer ball has come out with improved dynamics. The traditional ball encountered problems because of its round shape and smooth surface. These qualities cause air to stick to the front of the ball and cause it to slow down.

New development : 

New development A new type of ball has small dimples on the surface inspired by the golf ball that are made to redirect air to the back of the ball increasing the speed about 20%. This results in less drag and straighter, smoother flights.

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Heavy vs Light Bats : 

Heavy vs Light Bats If a light bat was swung at the same speed as a heavy bat and both hit the same ball, the heavy bat would pack more power since it has more energy and more momentum. But light bats can be swung 10% faster. If a bat is swung 10% faster, the ball comes off the bat about 7.5% faster. That almost makes up for the fact that light bats are basically less powerful when swung at the same speed as heavy bats.

Heavy vs Light Bats : 

Heavy vs Light Bats The end result is that heavy bats are more powerful than light bats. Having a heavy bat is a definite advantage if you swing all bats at the same medium speed, but if you need to move the bat quickly into position to strike the ball, a light bat will get there faster.

Ball spin : 

Ball spin A cricket ball, like anything else, has three main axes about which it can spin. Each spin axis has a different effect on the flight of the ball through the air and a different effect on the way the ball bounces. The three axes are perpendicular to each other. The first axis is vertical.

Ball spin : 

Ball spin A ball that spins about the second axis does not swerve at all through the air. However it will kick sharply to the left or right when it bounces, depending on the amount and direction of spin. The ball kicks in the same direction of motion as the top of the ball.

Catching the ball : 

Catching the ball While catching a fast moving ball , cricketer gradually pulls his hands backwards with the moving ball. In doing so the fielder increases the time during which the high velocity of the moving ball decreases to zero. Therefore, the fielder can reduce the impact of fast moving ball.

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Physics is extremely significant in a swimmer’s efficiency and stroke. Water is more than 700 times denser and 55 times more viscous than air. There are three main types of drag that act on a swimmer: friction, wave, and pressure drag.

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Frictional drag is the result of the interaction between the swimmer’s body and the water molecules and serves to slow down the swimmer. However, this drag also propels the swimmer through the water (Newton’s 3rd law). As the speed of the swimmer increases, pressure drag becomes a factor. The faster the swimmer is moving, there is increased pressure on the front region of the body (the head) A third form of drag, wave drag, occurs when the swimmer or any object moves through the surface of a liquid.

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The Relationship between Drag Forces and Velocity for the Four Competitive Swimming Strokes, Breaststroke, Backstroke, Butterfly, Freestyle research was done to determine the relationship between the maximum velocity and the maximum power and to find the active drag of each stroke.

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Mostly the ball spin due to these both following cases : Air speed:- This is simply the speed at which an object moves through the air. If the air itself is moving, then relative air speed is used. Relative air speed:- Relative air speed of an object is always 200 km/hr if winds blows from front then 10km/hr is added with relative air speed . If blows from behind then it is subtracted from relative air speed .

Is 38 mm ball faster than 40mm ball? : 

Is 38 mm ball faster than 40mm ball? As the 38mm ball has a smaller radius, it also has a lower mass, and therefore a lower Energy due to the equation E = ½mv2. This should therefore mean that the overall velocity of the ball is lower. BUT, the 38mm ball is faster than the 40mm ball because the increase in the radius results in an increase in the wind resistance, thus slowing down the 40mm ball. When you deal with objects of low mass like a table tennis ball, air resistance is a major factor in slowing it down

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The sweet spot : 

The sweet spot Batters know from experience that there is a sweet spot on the bat, about 17 cm from the end of the barrel, where the shock of the impact, felt by the hands, is reduced to such an extent that the batter is almost unaware of the collision.

The sweet spot : 

The sweet spot The sweet spot of a bat exists because bat vibrations are not excited significantly at that spot. The spot is close to the centre of percussion (COP) for a freely supported bat, so it was thought at one time that the sweet spot might be associated with the COP. However, the COP shifts a long way toward the handle when a batter holds the handle, and plays only a minor role in the feel of the bat for an impact at the sweet spot.

The Home Run Swing : 

The Home Run Swing Ball arrives on 100 downward Batter swings up at 250 Ball takes off at 350 The optimum home run angle! Golf Balls

Golf : 


Golf Balls : 

Golf Balls Golf balls were made with uniform irregularities in their surface, dimples. The purpose of dimples on a golf ball is to help generate the power necessary to lift a golf ball in to the air, and how far it travels.

Golf Swing : 

Golf Swing There are two components to the weight transfer both during the backswing and downswing. In order to gain the maximum torque from ones body during the golf swing, this total weight transfer must be executed in a single fluid rotational movement. This movement adds to the power and have accuracy of direction of the force imparted to the golf ball.

Conclusion : 

Conclusion Physics play a dominant role in sports and it is used in every sport. We cannot play any of the game without using proper physics in .



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