Public Administration: Public Administration George K. Wezner
Assistant Professor, Criminal Justice
Mitchell College Why Study Public Administration?: Why Study Public Administration? Purpose of the Course
Understand the four primary purposes of government, as follows:
1) To provide a National defense, military presence
2) To provide for the general welfare; schools , hospitals and regulatory oversight
3) To provide laws and enforcement for domestic order
4) To speak for those who have no voice….
And to understand the vast competing concerns involved in the administration of the above matters in a democracy within a pluralistic society. Discuss. Future Considerations –Last slide in Presentation: Future Considerations –Last slide in Presentation Rudy Giuliani - Will government solve the future problems concerning crime, behavior, terrorism (and all other ism’s) biological health…No!
We must respond with agencies and families, extended families, community , etc.
Use of shared emerging technological resources, data banks, shared communication with all….Clarity of function and purpose. All government agencies –v 9/11 and related tragedies
What’s the best gift a father can give his children?
Good government starting at the home as a foundation.
Good leadership as an attitude and service. Walk your talk.
The End!!! - Go and excel…… Public Administration: Public Administration A Pluralistic Nation – Differences, hopes, aspirations. How do we manage, lead, and prepare for successive generations (i.e.; you!) to take over the tasks?
Diversity awareness – A review of Changing demographics and societal impact. ACA film and CMHC/UCONN overview PPT.
A study within the classroom: Boundary Breaking and you…. Chapter One: Big Democracy, Big Bureaucracy: Chapter One: Big Democracy, Big Bureaucracy Tradition and constraint – Historical-Nicolas Henry: tradition and cultural and historical paradigms
The four basic purposes of government:
Our foundational as a nation – historical factors, revolution and change
Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union – 1781-1789 – movement and administrative constraint; 1789 1st continental congress. What occurred during these years?
The First state constitutions – administration by legislators. Representative government and models
Public Administration - Historical: Public Administration - Historical Prior to 1789 – articles of confederation
The US System of Government – the longest lived Constitutional system on earth!!! 1789 to the present!
Governing the US is one of the most complicated activities in the world…
There are 87, 504 governments within its boundaries - a maze of governments. 19.8 Million work in government….How do we train , motivate, hire, fire , promote, motivate and ensure loyalty?
All of this happens within a legal and political environment with its roots embedded in Federalism
What is Federalism? Federalism – C 1: Federalism – C 1 Federalism - a form of political decentralization where each state maintains a substantial measure of legal and constitutional soverigneity –versus a unitary government like the United Kingdom
An employee – US citizen – works at least 5 mos. Per year to pay for federal, state, and local governments. What do these government services entail? Discuss… Federalism – C1: Federalism – C1 Created in response to a political problem – i.e.; England, despite its “One nation under God” ability to contain, isolate and secure the public trust…some adjustments were needed to make this experienmnt in a new government (de Tocqueville -1823) a success. It accomplished this goal.
Under the Articles of confederation, each state controlled domestic and foreign trade, in various manners, disputes between states often became violent, and a balance was needed. Examples from Presidential Public Administration – Organization Barriers: Examples from Presidential Public Administration – Organization Barriers Jimmy Carter – Improvement versus the entrenched system of bureaucracies
FDR – Its difficult to get things done
Truman – Ike will order, like in the army, and nothing will get done!!
Dick Cheney – Chief of staff for Ford, Sec. of Defense for George HW Bush, current VP for G Bush –
You are constantly trying to overcome obstacles to get what the president wants done, which equates to 98% of your time on the phone! A Balance was Needed – C1: A Balance was Needed – C1 James Madison – If men were angels, no government would be needed…..but when men govern men you must
1) Have the government control the governed, and
2) Oblige the government to control itself
Discuss the impact of this statement on present day government operation and philosophy
Separation of powers The Three Main Periods of Public Administration in the US: The Three Main Periods of Public Administration in the US 1) Era of gentlemen – 1789 -1828
2) Spoils system – 1829 – 1882
3) Merit system – 1883 – present (including the civil service reform act of 1978 and NPM of the 90’s)
ERA OF GENTLEMEN – Washington 1789 – to Jackson’s Inauguration 1829…
Washington knew the importance of setting precedents. Values like “fitness of character”. Usually members of the upper class…also quick learners ERA Of GENTLEMEN – C1: ERA Of GENTLEMEN – C1 1795 – When divisions occurred between Jefferson and Hamilton on how active the role of government should be – Jefferson saw the dangers of political involvement…He sought loyalty and political neutrality
He sought to balance the playing field and sought balance between factions
Review with DOC lawsuits involving “contributors”, i.e.; b. gard, m. hause, et.al.
Generally , this provided for a well managed government, albeit homogeneous population, with a government position bequeathed till death… SPOILS SYSTEM: SPOILS SYSTEM President Jackson – 1829 – To the victor goes the spoils…….
The 1st significant patronage dismissals occurred due to:
Long tenured officers, unresponsive to the public, Concept of entrenchment
Too much upper class bias – question on Jackson's reading ability – His constituency was from western frontier middle lower classes
Belief in a four year rotation – long tenure…old age… antithesis to democratic principles
Presidents can distribute the spoils of victory, Whigs embraced the spoils system
Under spoils, ethics declined partisan politics grew
Review in light of the 1978 federal civil service act –which called for a work force that reflected the nation’s diversity Merit System – C1: Merit System – C1 Development of the administrative state and regulations
Spelled doom for spoils
Supreme court decisions made political firings unconstitutional, in majority
1883 – beginning of merit based exams , open, competitive to public. However, process may not be reliable
May be a barrier to EEO and minorities
Corruption of the 1870’s in government, gangs of New York, etc. Tammany Hall, etc.
President Wilson – “enormous immigration, a new class of Industrialist, constant infusion of new people with restless old world habits – the Jungle –Upton Sinclair and Teddy Roosevelt/FDA creation/ Labor Laws/Unions Public administration – C2: Public administration – C2 Progressive era – merit based beginnings – 1920’s…Rockefeller philanthropies to Universities in the pursuit of study in PA.
The work of executives - Principles of Gulick -1937 – as shown in POSTCORB:
5) CO ordinating
7) Budgeting Span of control: Span of control Public Administration –C2: Public Administration –C2 Norms and Values – of cultural perspectives
Systems approach – take stimulus and convert into outputs
Ecological models – Social change, adoption to needs
Organizational cultures – review and discuss
Norms, values, beliefs, and strict Ado's, in a Machiavellian fashion, by need
LEGAL ISSUES IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE Future of Governments –C2: Future of Governments –C2 Trip to London – 1997 – Homer Babbidge Fellowship – Henley, Oxford, Cambridge, Rolls Royce, inc. Her Majesty’s Prison Service and privatization…..
Blurring of Boundaries – ‘across the pond’, etc.
Governments will flatten and spread
Alter capacity and scale…
Collaborative models – competition - competencies Organization Theories – C3: Organization Theories – C3 Bureaucratic theory – Who was Jethro? Bragaw, 1997, RPI. – How societies progressed from hunter gatherers to post industrial technocratic societies…
Definition of organizations (3 areas), Amitai Etzioni: organizations are social units – army, corps, governments, schools, prisons, etc, characterized by:
Division of labor – power and communication
Presence of one or more power centers –to control and direct
Substitution of personnel – HR - to hire , train, promote , transfer and fire, etc. Scientific Management: Scientific Management Max Weber – 1864-1920 – Father of Sociology
Characteristics of Bureaucracies:
1) Special jurisdictions
2) Chain of command
3) Career structure
4) Permanence of structure
5) Usually large
This should lead to high efficiency, powerful, and ever expanding form and purpose Scientific Management –C3 : Scientific Management –C3 Bureaucracies can have procedures that are:
Impersonal or dehumanizing, formal or rule bound, and highly disciplined.
Critics of Weber /scientific mgmt cite:
Bosses and underlings may be without technical competence
Have arbitrary and zany rules
Develops a subculture which masks or subverts the formal perception
Conflict and confusion or roles – D/C M complex, etc.
Cruel treatment of subordinates
Chpt 4 – Theories and Forces: Chpt 4 – Theories and Forces New paradigms – Open models
New Public Management – NPM -often critical of Bureaucracies
Re-Inventing government – Gabler, Osborn, 1992
Scientific mgmt – shovel –weight- output per hour, production planning for the masses….
Human Relations Approach – QWL, Communications with chief , open doors, quality circles, High performance teams
Satisfied workers will be more productive
TQM approaches, damming, LRM versus Ron angel one at lunch 1988….LOB
Santa Fe DOC riots 1981. Organizations - NPM and TQM C3 and C4: Organizations - NPM and TQM C3 and C4 Douglas McGregor – Theory X and theory Y
X – close supervision
Y – self actualized, intrinsic motivation model
Decision making models and TQM
Hawthorne Effect – Western Electric – 1927-1932:
1) Productivity is affected by strong social and psychological forces
2) Non-economic rewards and sanctions are also highly important
3) Highest degree of specialization –not necessarily the most important or efficient
Workers may react to management as a group, rather than individuals. New Public Management – 1993 -Present: New Public Management – 1993 -Present Focus on results
Be market like with competitors
Steer , not row
Deregulate government , where possible
Empower your employees
Change the culture to be more innovative and flexible
Use of benchmarks, performance indicators
Use budgets as focused on outputs Worker’s Needs –Our Needs C4/5: Worker’s Needs –Our Needs C4/5 Show Interpersonal relations/ Our belief systems PPT
Review hierarchy of needs
How does this ties into effective decision making?
What do staff needs. What do you need?
What do staff expect of leaders and bosses?
What are the differences between the two? Organization Fibers – People and Leadership – C5: Organization Fibers – People and Leadership – C5 Administrators and leadership
What can organizations do to you?
Motives of Mgrs – profits and non profits
Models of adult development -our life line and world views
Video – leadership – 10 Practices Leadership - 10 practices: Leadership - 10 practices Inspire a vision - with mission statements and values
Model the Way – versus moralizing, hands off, etc.
Enable others to act – always help, train , support others
Encourage the heart - exhortation to others , praise, openly
Challenge the process -is there a better way? Use the chain
Changing – yourself, others , the culture
Influencing – walk your talk
Collaboration – get involved with other departments, be friendly,
Interaction with the media
Participate in the political arena Leadership Strategies (Advanced) LRM, JJA, GKW: Leadership Strategies (Advanced) LRM, JJA, GKW Personal/ organizational values
Setting an agenda
Personnel selection and succession
Phases of new leadership (4)
Communication – getting the message out
Changing organizational culture
Public perception continuum
Emerging Issues and change Leadership - When Facing Opposition…and you will ! : Leadership - When Facing Opposition…and you will ! Winston Churchill – Never give in…unless it is against the immoral or unprincipled
Nehemiah – Hebrew scriptures, OT:
Have Courage – remind people of who they are, what is protecting them, mobilize your forces 24/7….
Be Visionary –in your approach, focus on results, vision – not obstacles or opposing forces, people taunting and mocking. Part of the job!!!
Persevere – This too, shall pass. Look for strength outside of yourself. Rest and relax, deflect when possible.
How does this apply to all areas of one’s life?
Be Creative…… Look, rethink, meditate, ponder – revelation of thought and cognitive processes Leadership - Motivation of the Unmotivated: Leadership - Motivation of the Unmotivated Mark Gorman – Discipline – “I need discipline”
No! - I (we) need a vehicle, which could be a vision, program plan, etc., to work as a vehicle for change
Look at GOALS and DREAMS for each individual
Example – 2 yr old daughter needs leg braces for 1 year…do you
Give her the option to cry only, or tailor this need to
Offering a trip to Disneyland after the 1 year!
Successful people are never surprised! Examples form Olympic gold medalists…. Not I never dreamed of this, but I have been dreaming of this moment all my life!! Corruption C7: Corruption C7 Causative Theories
Role of leadership in addressing Type 1, 2 and 3 levels of corruption (L. Sherman, 1999).
Film – Serpico; Training Day
Review case histories of John Rowland, Lenny Grimaldi and Joe Ganum, Waterbury mayors,etc.
Public administrators take a constitutional oath of office – they can face lawsuits…GKW v ___. Budgets and Finance – C7: Budgets and Finance – C7 What are Budgets? They are statements of government revenues and expenditures which show:
Review of budget hearings at LOB and federal level – purpose and intent
How does this affect the constituency? Programs and services? Budgets – C8: Budgets – C8 How does the government pay for goods and services?
How does this occur, and under which type of circumstances? What are the 5 stages of a Budget Cycle?: What are the 5 stages of a Budget Cycle? 1) Formulation of the Individual agency budgets
2) Preparation of the executive budget by the executive branch
3) Presentation of the budget by the executive head
4) Legislative action and funding
5) Execution of the budget by the chief executive Budgets: Budgets Execution of the budget can include actions such as hiring freezes, sequesters, recessions, deferrals and transfers
Judicial approach – do not under fund public institutions, schools, prisons, mental health, etc., which could create a violation of individual rights. Review judicial activism…… Public Policy and Decision Making C10: Public Policy and Decision Making C10 Policy making - a core activity of PA
Based on efficiencies, economy and effectiveness
Controlled by Hierarchy, span of control grid regulations, matrix management
Impact of - Data – Research - and POLITICS
Factors to avoid in decision making? AVOID: AVOID Unclear goals and misplaced priorities
Confusion of the public interest with that of a clientele group or constituency
Overly rigid adherence to rules – discuss
Oversimplification of reality
Over quantification at the expense of qualitative factors
Reluctance to engage in policy and program evaluation to obtain feedback