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Wel come

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Diseases SOYBEAN (Glycine max) Rust : Phakopsora pachyrhizi Soybean mosaic virus Mosaic : Bacterial pustule : Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines

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SOYBEAN (Glycine max) Rust Phakopsora pachyrhizi

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Symptoms Symptoms appear on all above ground parts of the plant. Large number of light brown pustules appears on lower surface of the leaves in the initial stages, later turns to reddishbrown to tan colour. Tan lesions consist of small uredia surrounded by slightly discolored necrotic areas on leaf surfaces.

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Early stages show an ostiole , or small hole, where uredospores emerge. As uredia become larger, they release masses of tan colored uredospores that appear as light brown or white raised areas Uredial pustules become more numerous with advancing infection and often will coalesce forming larger pustules that break open releasing masses of uredospores.

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The leaves gradually become yellow and premature defoliation occurs resulting in yield loss. Lesions are generally restricted by veins giving angular appearance. In Kharif crop, the disease appears in the first week of September coinciding with flowering or pod formation.

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Early infection by  Phakopsora pachyrhizi  on a susceptible soybean

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Phakopsora pachyrhizi : susceptible (TAN) lesions.

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Phakopsora pachyrhizi : red brown (RB type) lesion with some sporulation.

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Phakopsora pachyrhizi : red brown (RB type) lesion with some sporulation.

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  Phakopsora pachyrhizi : RB lesion with circular ostiole and spores.

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Phakopsora pachyrhizi  RB lesion with no sporulation.

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Soybean rust pustules caused by  Phakopsora pachyrhizi on the upper side of a soybean leaf.

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Soybean rust pustules caused by  Phakopsora pachyrhizi on a soybean cotyledon.

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Soybean rust pustules caused by  Phakopsora pachyrhizi  on petioles.

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Soybean rust pustules caused by  Phakopsora pachyrhizi on stems.

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Soybean rust pustules caused by  Phakopsora pachyrhizi  on the under side of a soybean leaf.

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Disease cycle The disease is favoured by temperature of 18 to 230C and R.H of 80%. The pathogen survives as teleutospores in crop debris. Secondary spread is through wind borne uredospores. Favourable Conditions

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Management Early maturing cultivars escape rust infection. Grow resistant varieties like PK 73-84, PK-310, IC 89495, IC 89498, etc.

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Spray twice with Saprol (Triforine)@0.05%, Delan (Dithianon)@0.2% or Mancozeb@0.1%

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Soybean mosaic Soybean mosaic virus

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Symptoms Infected plants can be recognized by their stunted growth, distorted and puckered leaves. The leaves are dwarfed, crinkled and narrow with their margins turned downwards.

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In severe cases, dark green blister like puckering along the veins takes place. Pod setting is drastically reduced. Infected plants produce distorted pods and fewer seeds.

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The infected plants remain green even at the end of the growing season. Seed discolouration can be seen under severe infection.

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Disease cycle The virus is seed borne and is transmitted by aphids.

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Use virus free seed from healthy crop. Rogue out infected plants and burn them. Spray monochrotophos@1.5ml/lt or dimethoate@2ml/lt to control the vector Management

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Bacterial pustule Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines

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Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines Bacterial pustule Symptoms Symptoms are evident as tiny, light green spots with elevated centers that later on turn into raised lightly coloured pustules, typically without exudates. Infection is more frequent on the lower ones.

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Spots may vary from minute specks to large, irregular, mottled brown areas. Severely affected portions of leaves are torn away by wind imparting a ragged appearance to plants, and results in premature defoliation.

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The disease reduces the yield as well as the oil content in seeds. Raised red brown spots on pods may also develop.

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The bacterium survives in crop residue and seed The disease appears in a severe form when warm temperatures and frequent showers prevail during growing season. Disease cycle Favourable conditions

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Remove and burn infected plant debris. Crop rotation with grain crop is recommended Management

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Two sprays at 45and 55 DAS with a mixture of Blitox@0.2% + Streptocycline@250ppm