Ancient India

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Ancient India: 

Ancient India The “In’s and Out’s” Presentation

I. The Indus River Valley Civilization: 

I. The Indus River Valley Civilization Over 2,000 years old! 2,500 BC developed on the banks of the Indus River Valley Referred to as Harappan civilization After one of its major cities Lasted until approx. 1,700 BC Near present-day Pakistan Borders stretch from present-day Kabul, Afghanistan to Delhi, India Indus Valley

I. The Indus River Valley Civilization: 

I. The Indus River Valley Civilization Hundreds of towns and two major cities: Harappa Mohenjo-Daro Large city Well-built homes Public buildings Canals City walls Mohenjodaro 1

I. The Indus River Valley Civilization: 

I. The Indus River Valley Civilization Mohenjo-Daro (inset, pg. 592) Craft workers used clay for beautiful figurines and communication Streets in a grid design Wall around the city Houses had brick/stone foundations Several rooms, toilets, wells, drainage system with brick lined sewers in the streets Ditches and canals for irrigation Public bathhouse Buildings for storing grain and holding meetings Major trade partners???

II. The Aryan Influence on South Asia: 

II. The Aryan Influence on South Asia 1,700 BC—Aryans came to South Asia Migrated through Russia and passes in the Hindu Kush mountains Suggests that Aryans played a role in the end of the Harappan civilization No one knows why the civilization ended around 1,700 BC Possible theories: Climate change? Conquered? Destroyed? Aryan people and Indus River valley civilization eventually blended into one culture This culture was concentrated in both the Indus River valley and the Ganges River valley

II. The Aryan Influence on South Asia: 

II. The Aryan Influence on South Asia A New People, a New Civilization Aryans were very different from the Indus River valley people Spoke the language of Sanskrit Nomads and herders (never lived in cities) Food and clothes came from animals they raised Wealth was measured in number of cattle a person owned

II. The Aryan Influence on South Asia: 

II. The Aryan Influence on South Asia New Technology After 1,000 BC Aryans discovered iron ore in the Ganges River valley Improved agriculture Allowed them to discover how to grow rice (already a local custom) Began to settle in towns

II. The Aryan Influence on South Asia: 

II. The Aryan Influence on South Asia New Technology, cont. Developed new iron weapons Stronger than the Harappan people’s weapons Improved weapons and introduction of horses allowed Aryans to rule the whole area of northern India.

III. Hinduism—A Way of Life: 

III. Hinduism—A Way of Life Major Religion developed in ancient India Based on Aryan practices Priests chant hymns and praises to Gods Hymns passed down through Oral Traditions

III. Hinduism—A Way of Life: 

III. Hinduism—A Way of Life Hymns were later written down in a book referred to as Vedas Vedas—Books of Knowledge Contain writings on prayers, hymns, religious rituals and philosophies Equivalent to what???

III. Hinduism—A Way of Life: 

III. Hinduism—A Way of Life Karma and Reincarnation Central ideas of Hinduism Karma: the idea that a person’s actions will determine what happens to them after their death (think “What goes around comes around,” or “You get what you deserve.”)

III. Hinduism—A Way of Life: 

III. Hinduism—A Way of Life Karma and Reincarnation, cont. Reincarnation: idea that after death a person’s soul is reborn into a different body Believe cycle of birth, death and rebirth occurs over and over again Status in life is then determined by actions in a previous life

III. Hinduism—A Way of Life: 

III. Hinduism—A Way of Life The Caste System Main characteristic of India that sets it apart from other civilizations! Caste: Inherited social class Once born into a class, cannot leave for entire life…no matter what! Influenced by the Aryan tribal system Tribal system based on organizational belief that people are NOT equal

III. Hinduism—A Way of Life: 

III. Hinduism—A Way of Life The Caste System, cont. Four Major Classes (Varnas) Brahmans—highest class; priests and scholars, (because daily life was based on religion and rituals) Kshatriyas—ruling class; warriors, princes and nobles Vaisyas—merchants and farmers Sudras—laborer or commoners

III. Hinduism—A Way of Life: 

III. Hinduism—A Way of Life The Caste System, cont. There was a fifth class, considered to be the lowest of the low (this still holds true today) The Untouchables: Did work no one else wanted to do Ex: cleaned up after cremating the dead, executed criminals, tanned animal hides, did jobs seen as unclean

III. Hinduism—A Way of Life: 

III. Hinduism—A Way of Life The Caste System, cont. The Untouchables, cont.: Shunned/discriminated against in society Ex: eat out of out broken bowls, wear clothes taken from the dead, sound wooden clappers to warn they were coming Higher classes could be shunned for either being seen with an untouchable or being near his or her shadow

IV. The Maurya and Gupta Dynasties: 

IV. The Maurya and Gupta Dynasties What is a dynasty? A family of rulers that controls power of a civilization through generations Two major dynasties of ancient India Maurya Gupta There contributions still affect our lives today!

IV. The Maurya and Gupta Dynasties: 

IV. The Maurya and Gupta Dynasties The Mauryan Empire First Indian empire Approx. from 324-185 BC Founded by descendents of the Aryans who moved east from the Indus River valley One emperor, Ashoka (most famous), created a unified government Mauryan’s were known for fine sculptures and sandstone carvings

IV. The Maurya and Gupta Dynasties: 

IV. The Maurya and Gupta Dynasties The Golden Age and the Gupta Dynasty Approx. 320-500 AD During India’s “Golden Age” of science, art and literature Most rulers were Hindu Buddhism was also introduced at this time Hindu and Buddhism were major religions at this time

IV. The Maurya and Gupta Dynasties: 

IV. The Maurya and Gupta Dynasties Hindu and Buddhism inspired art Created sculptures and paintings of Hindu gods and goddesses Many temples built containing images of Hindu mythology Mountainside cliffs were hollowed out for Buddhist temples

IV. The Maurya and Gupta Dynasties: 

IV. The Maurya and Gupta Dynasties Literature Sanskrit became more frequent during the Gupta dynasty Kalidasa— Great poet and playwright during 5th century AD (400’s) Plays taught moral principles through creativity and mystery

IV. The Maurya and Gupta Dynasties: 

IV. The Maurya and Gupta Dynasties Mathematics Gupta mathematicians Developed “zero concept” and numerals we use today numbers have a place system, with zero as a place holder Called this system Arabic (we still call it this today)

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