04 social marketing

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SOCIAL MARKETING “In action” Kathleen Grace-Bishop, MHSA, CHES September, 2004


AGENDA Goals Review of Social Marketing Concepts Discussion of Social Marking Planning Process, using case studies Questions? Resources


Goals To review the principles of social marketing To build upon tools and concept of social marketing through discussion of case studies to help create a better understanding of social marketing planning process (I will be focusing on Steps 1-6 in my presentation and will use case studies to illustrate steps in the process. I will only quickly discuss Steps 7 & 8.) To provide additional resources

Define Social Marketing: 

Define Social Marketing Social Marketing is the practice of utilizing the philosophy, tools, and practices of commercial marketing for health and/or social programs. Social Marketing sells a behavior change to a targeted audience: -Accept a new behavior -Reject a potential behavior -Modify a current behavior -Abandon an old behavior This is challenging to do, since change is voluntary. We cannot promise director benefit or immediate payback for proposed behavior change

Social Marketing Basics: 

Social Marketing Basics Must be client/consumer/audience centered-so need to know them in order to target Same as commercial marketing except goal is not revenue/profit Focus on enhancing perceived benefits & reducing perceived barriers. Actions will only occur if perceived benefits > perceived costs Manage the P’s Measure results

Social Marketing Planning Process: 

Social Marketing Planning Process 1. Analyze the social marketing environment Select target audience Set goals and objectives Understanding the target audience and the competition Determine Strategies – P’s-Product, Price, Place, Promotion Develop Evaluation & monitoring strategy Establish budgets & find funding sources Complete an implementation plan

Key Elements of a Successful Campaign: 

Key Elements of a Successful Campaign Take advantage of what is known & has been done before Start with target markets that are the most ready for action Promote a single, doable behaviors, explain in simple, clear terms Consider incorporating & promoting a tangible object with the target behavior Understand & address perceived benefits & costs

Key Elements of a Successful Campaign: 

Key Elements of a Successful Campaign Make access easy Develop attention-getting & motivational messages Choose appropriate media channels & watch for audience participation in traditional media vehicles Provide response mechanism that make it easy & convenient for inspired audiences to act on recommended behaviors Allocate appropriate resource for media/outreach Track results and make adjustments

Role of Research: 

Role of Research Research is used to make decisions, so applicable in each of the planning steps If you want to develop a successful campaign/process research is key Research is often characterized in 1 of 3 ways: By where it fits in the planning process By whether desired research information already exists By technique used to conduct research

Where Does the Research Fit?: 

Where Does the Research Fit? Formative research help analyze the marketing environment, select target markets, & develop preliminary strategies to address chosen markets Pretest research evaluate a short list of alternative strategies and tactics, identify deficiencies and fine future possible approaches to reach target audience Monitoring & evaluating research-how is the project doing – improve effectiveness and efficiency.

Research Source: 

Research Source Primary research-it has not been conducted before, tailored to specific questions & decisions facing planners Secondary research refers to information & research data that already exist somewhere To save time and $ do secondary research first

Research Techniques: 

Research Techniques Qualitative-exploratory in nature, seeking to identify and clarify issues. Sample size usually smaller and not projected to larger populations Quantitative –conducted to reliably profile markets, predict cause and effect, and project findings. Sample sizes are usually large, and surveys conducted in a controlled and organized environments

Discussion of Case Study: 

Discussion of Case Study

Step 1. Analyze the Social Marketing Environment: 

Step 1. Analyze the Social Marketing Environment Choose a campaign focus Evaluate each potential approach & choose focus Behavior change potential- is there a clear behavior that can be promoted to address the issue? Market Demand-how many people would benefit from behavior change campaign w/ this focus? Market Supply-is this issue already being addressed by other org. & campaigns? Organizational Match-Is this a good match for the sponsoring org.? Funding Source & Appeal-which approach has the greatest funding potential? The best focus would have high potential for behavior change, fill a significant need and void in marketplace, match org. capabilities, & have high funding potential.

Step 1: Analyze Soc. Marketing Environment: 

Step 1: Analyze Soc. Marketing Environment Clarify the purpose (broad) impact of campaign, don’t confuse with campaign objectives which focus on behavior, or what we want audience “to do” What is the potential impact of a successful campaign? What difference will it make? Our campaign purpose is ultimate impact/benefit of adopting the behavior to target market and/or society. Conduct a SWOT analysis Review past and similar efforts

Selecting Target Markets: 

Selecting Target Markets Segment the market Traditional variables-demographics, geographics, psychographics, behavioral variables 2 other models Stages of Change Healthystyles segmentation system

Step 2. Select Target Markets: 

Step 2. Select Target Markets Evaluate the segments Segment size Problem incidence Problem severity Defenselessness-care for self vs. need help from others Reachability-audience easily identified and reached General responsiveness-ready, willing, able Incremental cost-est. cost to do this group vs. another Responsiveness to marketing mix (P’s) Organizational capabilities-staff expertise, outside resources

Selecting Target Markets: 

Selecting Target Markets Choose one or more segments for targeting Undifferentiated marketing-same strategy for all segments Differentiated marketing-different strategy for different audiences Concentrated marketing-a few segments are targeted with unique strategies

Selecting Target Markets: 

Selecting Target Markets Target markets emerge as those with the greatest need and are the most ready for action, easiest to reach and best match for organization. Targeting markets of greatest opportunity may run counter to a planner natural desire and inclination or mandate to either ensure that all constituents are reached and served or to focus resources on segment of audience with greatest need.

Discussion of Case Study: 

Discussion of Case Study

Step 3. Setting Goals & Objectives: 

Step 3. Setting Goals & Objectives Primary objective of social marketing campaign is behavior change. Need specific behavior objective in mind, something you want your target audience to do. Behavior objectives should be clear, doable, which the target audience will know they completed.

Setting Goals & Objectives: 

Setting Goals & Objectives Two additional objectives that may also need to be established: Knowledge objectives-stats, facts, other info that may be helpful, motivating to audience Belief objectives-attitudes, opinions, or values held by the audience (change current belief, or need them to gain a belief in order to help them make the change).

Setting Goals & Objectives: 

Setting Goals & Objectives Goals Are quantifiable, measurable, and related to campaign focus, target audience and time frame Establish a desire level of behavior change as a result of campaign. When establishing & measuring behavior change is not practical/economical, alternatives can be considered-measure campaign awareness, response, process and/or increase in knowledge, beliefs and intentions.

Cell Phone Usage: Potential Campaign Objectives & Goals to Decrease Traffic Accidents/Injuries: 

Cell Phone Usage: Potential Campaign Objectives & Goals to Decrease Traffic Accidents/Injuries Focus: cell phone usage in cars Purpose: reduce accident assoc with cell phone usage in cars Campaign objectives: Behavior: to pull over to use phone Knowledge: to know % of accidents that involve cell phones Belief: to believe that talking on cell phones. Even hands-free can be a distraction Campaign goal: increase # of people who pull over by 25%

Step 4. Understanding Target Audience: 

Step 4. Understanding Target Audience After establishing objectives and goals, we need to return to target audience and explore current behavior, knowledge & beliefs related to specific objectives/goals. This is critical to develop customer oriented strategies. Research is important-doesn’t need to be new. Use info that already exists

Step 4. Understanding Target Audience: 

Step 4. Understanding Target Audience What would they rather do than the behavior we are promoting & why? What benefits do they see in their current behavior? What costs do they see in their current behavior? What do the know about the desired behaviors? What do they believe? What are their values/attitudes relative to the desired behaviors? Folic acid example.

Understanding Target Audience: 

Understanding Target Audience Several social marketing theories/models regarding behavior change can it helpful in our work: Knowledge, Attitude, Practices & Beliefs (KAPB) Health Belief Model Innovations diffusion model Social cognitive theory/social learning theory Social Norms approach

Understanding Target Audience: 

Understanding Target Audience The competition is tough. It includes these challenges: Behaviors our audience would prefer to do & pleasures/benefits associated with them Behaviors that are lifelong Strong messages and messengers that are counter to behaviors being promoted An in-depth analysis of perceived benefits, barriers, and cost of the desired and competing behaviors is key .

Step 5. Determine Strategies-P’s: 

Step 5. Determine Strategies-P’s Product-the desire behavior and its benefits, and tangible services/objects to support change 1.Core Product-benefits; What potential benefits should be stressed? 2.Actual Product-behavior; Choosing name, packaging, sponsors, endorsements 3. Augmented product-tangible objects/services; Need to develop new products/services or improve current ones These should be based on clear understanding of competition and to ensure that your target audience will see you product as offering more and greater benefits than current behaviors.

Determine Strategies-P’s: 

Determine Strategies-P’s Price-cost that the target audience associates with adopting the new behavior We need to ensure that the benefits of change is = or > what they give up (costs) Identify monetary ($ for purchasing tangible services/objects) & nonmonetary cost (time, effort, energy, psychological & losses) associated with adopting new behavior Develop 4 P’s tactics to decrease costs & increase benefits

Determine Strategies-P’s: 

Determine Strategies-P’s Place-where and when the target audience will perform desired behavior, acquire any related tangible objects & receive any associated services Make it as convenient and pleasant as possible-location, hours, mobile, parking Make it more convenient to do desired behavior then competing behavior

Determine Strategies-P’s: 

Determine Strategies-P’s Promotion-is persuasive communication to ensure that target audience knows about the offer, believe they will experience stated benefits and is inspired to act. Message-what is being said, why & how Media-where it will be said, when,and by whom Try to pretest messages and execution if possible.

Message Execution Strategy: How do we want to say it?: 

Message Execution Strategy: How do we want to say it? Goal to develop communication that captures attention of or target audience & persuade them to adopt desired behaviors Elements: relational, emotional, moral, nonverbal Execution styles: slice of life, lifestyle, fantasy, mood/image, musical, personality symbol, technical expertise, scientific evidence, testimonial Execution also includes tone, choice of words, format Selecting media vehicle,-type, timing, frequency, impact, cost, advantages/limitations

Effective Communication (McKenzie-Mohr & Smith): 

Effective Communication (McKenzie-Mohr & Smith) Message should be vivid, personal & concrete Have message delivered by individual/org that is credible w/ audience Frame message to indicate what they individual is losing by not acting If you use a threatening message make sure you couple it with specific suggestion for action to take Make instructions related to behavior clear & specific Make it easy for people to remember what to do, how to do it & when to do it.

Examples of Promotion: 

Examples of Promotion

Step 6. Evaluation & Monitoring Strategy: 

Step 6. Evaluation & Monitoring Strategy Key components of plan What will be measured? How will it be measured? When will it be measured? How will results be used?

Evaluation & Monitoring Strategy: 

Evaluation & Monitoring Strategy Measure outcome (results) Changes in behavior, knowledge, beliefs, campaign awareness, customer satisfaction, responses to campaign processes (activities) Changes in policy and infrastructure, media coverage, dissemination of materials, participations, contributions from sources, assessment of program and campaign implementation

Evaluation & Monitoring Strategy: 

Evaluation & Monitoring Strategy Measuring techniques: Quantitative-telephone, mail, in-person survey Qualitative-focus groups, formal interviews, anecdotal comments Observation research Records and databases In general, outcome will use target audience surveys and process rely more on records and reports. Timing important-measure prior to campaign launch, during implementation and post-campaign

Discussion of Case Study: 

Discussion of Case Study

Step 7. Budget/Funding: 

Step 7. Budget/Funding Preliminary budgets are determined by using objective and task method: Review specific objectives Identify tasks that must be performed to achieve objectives Estimate costs associated with performing tasks Make sure to review desired goals/objective& those with cost implications will be added to preliminary budget. Make sure that all objectives/task are critical for success, as well as competitive and cost-effective.


Budget/Funding If budget exceed current funding, look for additional funding If proposed budget still exceeds funding sources even after exploring additional sources, need to consider developing campaign phases, strategically reducing cost and/or adjusting campaign goals

Step 8. Implementation Plan: 

Step 8. Implementation Plan Idea plan identifies activities over 2-3 years and are often presented in phases Frameworks for organizing plan: Target audiences, geographic areas, campaign objectives/goals, P’s, & funding Key components: What will we do? Who will be responsible? When will it be done? How much will it cost? Not only change behavior but sustain these changes into the future (reminders, recognition, infrastructure)




Resources Kotler, Philip, et al., Social Marketing: Improving the Quality of Life, 2nd ed., Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2002. Leigel, M. & Doner, L., Marketing Public Health: Strategies to Promote Social Change, Gaithersburg, MD: An Aspen Publication, 1998. McKenzie-Moh, D., Smith,W., Fostering Sustainable Behavior, Gabriola Island, BC, Canada: New Society Publication, 1998. Weinreich, N., Hands-On Social Marketing: A Step by Step Guide., Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1999.


Resources Prochaska, J., Norcross, J., & DiClemente, C., Changing for Good. New York: Avon Books, 1994. Andreasen, A.R., Marketing Social Change: Changing Behavior to Promote Health, Social Development, and the Environment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995.


Resources Jim Lewis’ presentation on Social Marketing: www.ecnh.unh.edu/social.ppt www.questia.com www.turningpointprogram.org www.themanager.org www.toolsofchange.com www.apha.org www.mostofus.org

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