Caring for Babies and Toddlers: Caring for Babies and Toddlers Supporting Families and Caregivers… Development in the First Years of Life*: Development in the First Years of Life* A drive to development is inborn, propelling the human infant toward learning and mastery
The opportunities for growth that enrich the early years also bring with them vulnerability to harm
People (especially parents and other caregivers) are the essence of the infant’s environment, and their protection, nurturing, and stimulation shape early development *Ross A. Thompson, “Development in the First Years of Life”, The Future of Children: Caring for Infants and Toddlers, Vol. 11, Number l The David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 2001
The Young Child Grows Faster in the First Three Years Than He or She Ever Will Again…: The Young Child Grows Faster in the First Three Years Than He or She Ever Will Again… Growth of the body (physical size, motor coordination, health)
Growth of the mind (thinking, language, concepts, problem solving)
Growth of the person (relationships, social understanding, emotions); and
Growth of the brain (development of neurons, synapses, and the influence of experience on brain growth) Baby Facts: Baby Facts 12 million infants and toddlers in the US
40% of children under the age three lived in or near poverty in 2000
In 2000, 2.1 million children under age three lived in poverty in the US
The poverty rate for young Black and Hispanic children under age three is three times higher than that of White children the same age Risk Factors for Children in Poverty:*: Risk Factors for Children in Poverty:* Inadequate nutrition
Diminished interaction due to maternal depression
Trauma and abuse/neglect *National Center for Children in Poverty, “Early Childhood Poverty: A Statistical Profile (March 2002)”, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY. Risk Factors for Children in Poverty:*: Risk Factors for Children in Poverty:* Lower quality child care
Parental substance abuse
Low birth weight
Less access to health care services *National Center for Children in Poverty, “Early Childhood Poverty: A Statistical Profile (March 2002)”, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY. Families of Infants and Toddlers Need…: Families of Infants and Toddlers Need… A strong nurturing family
A clearly identified medical home with up-to-date primary care
Health insurance and access to information on health resources, including services special needs children
Access to paid family and medical leave for the first year of a baby’s life
Access to parent education and family support
Access to early intervention services
Access to quality, affordable care
A stable and permanent home and access to specialized services where needed Early Head Start: Early Head Start Early Head Start children, at three years of age, scored higher on standardized assessment of infant cognitive development than the control children. They were less likely to score in the at-risk range of developmental functioning. Early Head Start: Early Head Start Early Head Start mothers were more supportive, more sensitive, less detached and more likely to extend play to stimulate cognitive and language development. Finding From the Abecedarian Study: Finding From the Abecedarian Study (full day, high quality intensive intervention 0-5)
Children who participated showed:
Higher cognitive scores
Better academic achievement in math and reading
Completed more years of education
Were more likely to go to college Research: Research “Second only to the immediate family, child care is the context in which early development unfolds, starting in infancy and continuing through school entry for the vast majority of young children in the United States.”
-- National Research Council, From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development, 2000. Percentage of Children Under 5 in Non-parental Care NHES:1999: Percentage of Children Under 5 in Non-parental Care NHES:1999 Child Care and Our Youngest Children* : Child Care and Our Youngest Children* Early exposure to child care can foster children’s learning and enhance their lives, or it can leave them at risk for troubled relationships. The outcome depends largely on the quality of the child care setting.
Responsive caregivers who surround children with language, warmth, and chances to learn are the key to good outcomes. Attributes like training, and staff-child ratios matter because they foster positive caregiving. *Deborah Phillips and Gina Adams “Child care and our youngest children” The Future of Children: Caring for Infants and Toddlers, Vol 11, Number 1 David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 200l. Child Care and Our Youngest Children* : Child Care and Our Youngest Children* The child care system in the U.S. is very diverse and variable, both “wonderful and woeful” can be found in all types of care. However, overall, setting where quality is compromised are distressingly common.
Children in families without support or good incomes are most often exposed to poor quality care.
*Deborah Phillips and Gina Adams “Child care and our youngest children” The Future of Children: Caring for Infants and Toddlers, Vol 11, Number 1 David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 200l. What Is the Better Baby Care Campaign?: What Is the Better Baby Care Campaign? Mission Statement:
To create a nationwide effort to ensure the very best care for our youngest children by improving the early care of infants and toddlers while their parents are working, in school, or in need of out-of-home services. History: History 1996 Welfare Reform requiring mothers with children under 3 to work
1998 CCDBG set aside for infants and toddlers
2000 Input to develop a Better Baby Care Agenda History: History 2001-Kick Off at the National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies (NACCRRA) Conference
Better Baby Care Campaign Website Established
Release of the Packard Report on Infant and Toddler Care
2002 NACCRRA State seed grants
NACA state Better Baby Care Advocacy Project
Better Baby Care housed at ZERO TO THREE Goals of the Campaign: Goals of the Campaign To Promote:
Safe and Healthy Care
Family Centered Care
Developmentally Appropriate Care Safe and Healthy Care: Safe and Healthy Care What does it look like?
Well informed providers
Safe, clean, and spacious rooms
Appropriate health procedures
Children with special needs are included
Consistent and continuous Safe and Healthy Care: Safe and Healthy Care What do we need to do?
Assure health and mental health consultation
Provide special needs supports Family-centered Care: Family-centered Care What does it look like?
Feels more like home than school
Helps parents connect to their children
Parents and providers learn from each other
Mothers and fathers are involved
Responsive to culture and language of families Family-centered Care: Family-centered Care What do we need to do?
Increase consumer education
Provide parent education and family support through child care
Develop supports for family child care and kith and kin providers Developmentally Appropriate Care: Developmentally Appropriate Care What does it look like?
Strong and positive relationships
Ample and appropriate materials to explore
Sensitive and knowledgeable staff
Small groups and sufficient staff (including high retention)
Good working conditions Developmentally Appropriate Care: Developmentally Appropriate Care What do we need to do?
Increase training and compensation
Build the capacity of higher education
Provide infant and toddler specialists in every Resource and Referral Agency Critical Investments: Critical Investments Expand supply and quality
Expand Early Head Start
Provide paid parental leave Better Baby Care Website: Better Baby Care Website www.betterbabycare.org