Love 1

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Lennart Lönngren University of Tromsø LOVE

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Let us start with a sentence in the active voice and its passive counterpart.

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Everybody loves her. She is loved by everybody.

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The preposition by in the passive sentence must be marked as syntactic: it does not occupy a node in the semantic representation.

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Everybody loves her. She is loved (by) everybody.

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Is in is loved, as opposed to was in was loved, is a tense marker, functioning as a predicate. The carrier of the corresponding meaning in the active sentence is a morpheme, which we mark as incorporated.

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Everybody loveandlt;sandgt; her. She is loved (by) everybody. Alternatively, we could extract a portmanteau morpheme from is: (is)andlt;PRESandgt;, but that would be an unnecessary complication.

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This is not a complete representation. The tense markers in both sentences function as a two-place predicate, the first valency position of which is occupied by the implicit speech act verb «say».

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Everybody loveandlt;sandgt; her. She is loved (by) everybody. «s.» «s.» «s.» = «(I) say»

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The implicit verb also dominates the syntactic top node, i.e. love.

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Everybody loveandlt;sandgt; her. She is loved (by) everybody. «s.» «s.» «s.» = «(I) say»

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In the following tense markers and speech act predicates will be disregarded.

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Everybody loveandlt;sandgt; her. She is loved (by) everybody. «s.» «s.» «s.» = «(I) say»

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Everybody loves her. She (is) loved (by) everybody.

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Now let us compare an ordinary sentence with its cleft counterpart.

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I love Mary. It is Mary that I love.

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Three words in the cleft sentence are syntactic. (The topicalization of Mary can be handled by a special implicit predicate, which we disregard here.)

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I love Mary. (It is) Mary (that) I love.

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He loved his new car. The object of his love was his new car. Paraphrases can also be created by means of certain role-markers:

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We mark four of the words in the paraphrase as syntactic.

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He loved his new car. (The object of) his love (was) his new car. Note that his in his love is not a predicate, whereas his in his car is a two-place predicate.

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The same syntactic function as object can be fulfilled by a derivative of the verb, meaning ’object of love’. Compare:

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He loved only Mary. Mary was the only one he loved. Mary was his only love.

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He loved only Mary. Mary (was the) only (one) he loved. Mary (was) his only (love)andlt;loveandgt;.

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In a small shop in Tucson I found the following text:

Choose your love: 

Choose your love Love your choice

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Instead of buying it and putting it on the wall I decided to analyse it. The first step is to extract the verbs out of the nouns love and choice. After that we can easily establish the subject and object relations.

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Choose your loveandlt;loveandgt; Love your choiceandlt;chooseandgt;

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Finally, let us conflate the two parts into one sentence. The comma separating the clauses represents a two-place predicate with the meaning «then».

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Choose your loveandlt;loveandgt;, love your choiceandlt;chooseandgt;. , (comma/pause) = «then»

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Now we can compare this sentence with a more basic and explicit paraphrase: Choose the person you love, then love the person you chose. … or still more explicitly: Choose the person that you love, then love the person that you chose.

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We see that the object relation arrows in each clause now point to two separate words. These are connected by means of the definite article, here with a cataphoric function. Choose the person that you love. The content of the connection is coreferentiality.

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Note also in the explicit paraphrase the different tenses: … you love vs … you chose. To account for this we must extract the corresponding tense morphemes: Choose the person you loveandlt;PRESandgt;, Love the person you choseandlt;PRETandgt;,

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Choose your loveandlt;loveandgt;«PRES», love your choiceandlt;chooseandgt;«PRET». In the original sentence this difference is totally implicit, but we can still represent it:

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The difference in tense can be traced back to a semantic distinction between the two verbs, namely the opposition athelic / thelic. THE END

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Whoops, I forgot overt derivatives, i.e. words formed from love and its equivalents by means of suffixation. cat andlt;lovandgt;er Mary’s andlt;lovandgt;er

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In Russian, different nouns are used in this case. andlt;ljubiandgt;tel’ koshek Mashin andlt;ljubovandgt;nik

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There are also derivatives expressing the converse relation. andlt;ljubimandgt;ec caricy the queen’s «like» favourite min andlt;älskandgt;lingsmelodi my favourite tune

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Empty verbs in English: Peter (makes) love (to) Mary. Peter älskar (med) Mary. Mary (fell in) love (with) Peter. Mary förälskade (sig i) Peter.

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Cf. also the paraphrases: Peter (is) Mary’s (andlt;lovandgt;er). Peter (makes) love (to) Mary.

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In Russian, the equivalent of make love cannot realize the second position. Oni (zanimajutsja) ljubov’ju. They (make) love.

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Moi andlt;ljubimandgt;ye menja zhdali. The following could be a way of representing substantivized adjectives and participles. My loved ones (were) waiting (for) me.

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Now truly: THE END

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