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Twice-Exceptionalities : 

Twice-Exceptionalities Twice-Exceptional (2e) Facts Intro to Game - Famous Individuals with Twice-Exceptionalities Characteristics of Gifted Children with Learning Disorders Autism Asperger’s Syndrome ADD and ADHD SENG video clip - The Misdiagnosis of Gifted

Twice- Exceptional Facts:: 

Twice- Exceptional Facts: What is a Twice-Exceptional Student? …students who possess an outstanding gift or talent and are capable of high performance, but who also have a learning disability that makes some aspect of academic achievement difficult Therefore…these students meet the definitions for both gifted and talented and learning-disabled students (GT/LD) Twice exceptional children are frequently misdiagnosed because their capabilities mask their disabilities, and their disabilities mask their capabilities.

Guess Who?: 

Guess Who? This person was born to an upper-middle-class family His mother was musically inclined and his father was an engineer This person was a very quiet child who did not speak until the age of 3 He hated school and disliked authority He did poorly with rote learning. His teachers said he was a slow learner who would never amount to anything Later, he became interested in science, math, and electrical engineering, but failed the exam for entry into an engineering program Because of his interest in abstract and mathematical thought, he was interested in becoming a teacher. However, he believed he lacked imagination and practical ability. Albert Einstein- famous mathematician and physics genius.

Characteristics of Gifted Children with Learning Disabilities: 

Characteristics of Gifted Children with Learning Disabilities Potential Strengths: Above average vocabulary Great knowledge and passion for subjects of interest Divergent thinkers – involving unusual, original, imaginative and creative thought processes Active imagination Excellent visual memory Sophisticated sense of humour Look Familiar?

Characteristics of Gifted Children with Learning Disabilities: 

Characteristics of Gifted Children with Learning Disabilities Potential Weaknesses: Cannot do simple tasks but can complete more sophisticated activities Poor spelling Poor handwriting Inconsistencies in reading ability Does well in mathematics, but poorly in language and vice versa Does not do well on timed tests Does not respond well or consistently to auditory instructions/information Difficulty copying from the blackboard Poor organizational skills, failure to complete or hand in assignments Difficulty with rote memorization and sequential learning Disruptive in class Frequently off task Easily frustrated Acts out without thinking about the consequences Poor social skills

Guess Who?: 

Guess Who? His father was a farmer and his mother died when he was young He was once kicked in the head by a horse and thought to be dead He had Marfan syndrome, a genetic disease that affects connective tissues, including those around the heart, skeleton, and nervous system He briefly attended school and was considered lazy He excelled at sports, was an avid reader, and liked practical jokes He was a good debater, thinker, and also liked to argue. Abraham Lincoln – former President of the United States

Autism and Asperger’s Syndrome - What are they?: 

Autism and Asperger’s Syndrome - What are they? Autism is a life-long developmental disability. This means that it impairs various aspects of typical development and last a lifetime Autism is a syndrome, which means that it is a condition defined by the existence of a collection of characteristics. For example: Individuals with autism experience difficulty in verbal and/or nonverbal communication, which ranges in extremes from not speaking at all to being unable to interpret body language or to participate comfortably in two-way conversation People with autism exhibit rigidity in thought processes, which can include difficulty with learning abstract concepts, generalizing information, and tolerating changes in routines and/or environments The most outstanding hallmark of autism is difficulty with reciprocal social interaction. This can range from appearing to want social isolation to experiencing social awkwardness in attaining and maintaining ongoing relationships.  Asperger’s Syndrome is a pervasive developmental disorder included in the autism spectrum disorders It is characterized by serious impairment in social interaction skills and repetitive behaviors Gifted students with Asperger’s Syndrome are students who possess an outstanding gift or talent and are capable of high performance and also have an autistic disorder.

Dual Diagnosis – Gifted and Autism/Asperger’s Syndrome: 

Dual Diagnosis – Gifted and Autism/Asperger’s Syndrome An increasing number of individuals with autism are identified as also being gifted Individuals with autism, whose intelligence is in the gifted range, become more easily tolerated by society over time as they learn compensatory strategies and are trained through behavior modification programs The key to their success and growth appears to be higher intelligence and ability to manipulate and thereby dilute some of their apparent autistic weakness and tendencies.

Characteristics of Gifted Children with Autism/Asperger’s Syndrome: 

Characteristics of Gifted Children with Autism/Asperger’s Syndrome Encyclopedic knowledge Fascination with numbers Exceptional musical talents Amazing memories Excellent puzzle ability Advanced visual memory and thinking Difficulty with Empathy Object and idea driven, not people driven.

Strategies: 

Strategies Support of parents, teachers, and counselors Students with autism/asperger’s often need highly structured visual teaching To learn the meaning and value of a schedule Teach strategies in the exact sequence students will need to use them to be successful Consider location, distractions, & boundaries. Buzzing lights, motors, hallway sounds, visual distractions, and smells can interfere with concentration Behavior is communication. Work at reading the behavior and not taking it personally. (For example, sounds that trigger behavior) Transitions, changing teachers, schools, etc can be difficult.

So how can Educators Distinguish between Giftedness and Autism or Asperger’s Syndrome?: 

So how can Educators Distinguish between Giftedness and Autism or Asperger’s Syndrome? Gifted children have normal friendships with those who share interests They understand interpersonal situations and the emotions of others Their own emotions are appropriate to the topic They can show sympathy and empathy They are aware of others’ perception of them They have little or no motor clumsiness They tolerate abrupt routine changes Speech and humor are more adult-like They understand metaphors and idioms.

Guess Who?: 

Guess Who? She was a fatherless child whose mother struggled financially Suffering from dyslexia, she could not read, write, or do mathematical problems Teachers described her as a class clown and she left school at age 16. Cher (Cherilyn Sarkisian LaPiere)- famous entertainer

ADD and ADHD- What are they?: 

ADD and ADHD- What are they? ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder): An inability to control behavior due to difficulty in processing neural stimuli ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder): Refers to a family of related chronic neurobiological disorders that interfere with an individual's capacity to regulate activity level (hyperactivity), inhibit behavior (impulsivity), and attend to tasks (inattention) in developmentally appropriate ways Some students posses an outstanding gift or talent and are capable of high performance, but also have been identified as having ADD/ADHD.

Characteristics of Gifted Children with ADD: 

Characteristics of Gifted Children with ADD ADD Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work or other activities Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks or activities that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework) Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, books, or tools) Often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli Often forgetful in daily activities

Characteristics of Gifted Children with ADHD: 

Characteristics of Gifted Children with ADHD ADHD Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat Often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected Often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness) Often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly Is often "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor" Often talks excessively Often blurts out answers before questions have been completed Often has difficulty awaiting turn Often interrupts or intrudes on others

Requirements for Dual Diagnosis : 

Requirements for Dual Diagnosis Present for at least 6 months Some symptoms that caused impairment were present before age 7 Some impairment from the symptoms is present in two or more settings (e.g., at school {or work} and at home) There must be clear evidence of clinically significant impairment in social, academic or occupational functioning Diagnosis as a last resort!

Guess Who? : 

Guess Who? Her father was an alcoholic and she lived with her maternal grandparents She had little affection for her mother who called her “Granny” because of her appearance She was sickly, bedridden, hospitalized often, and wore a back brace due to a spinal defect She bit her nails, had phobias, was shy, felt rejected and ugly, craved praise and attention, was insecure, and had deep feelings of inadequacy A daydreamer, she often preferred to be isolated After many years in school, she began to exhibit leadership qualities; she proved to be altruistic and wanted to help the elderly and poor. Eleanor Roosevelt- famous for her efforts as a reformer, humanitarian, and philanthropist

So How Can Parents or Teachers Distinguish Between ADD/ADHD and Giftedness?: 

So How Can Parents or Teachers Distinguish Between ADD/ADHD and Giftedness? Seeing the difference between behaviors that are sometimes associated with giftedness but also characteristic of ADD/ADHD is not easy, as the following parallel table shows Behaviors Associated with ADD/ADHD Poorly sustained attention in almost all situations Diminished persistence on tasks not having immediate consequences Impulsivity, poor delay of gratification Impaired adherence to commands to regulate or inhibit behavior in social contexts More active, restless than normal children Difficulty adhering to rules and regulations Behaviors Associated with Giftedness Poor attention, boredom, daydreaming in specific situations Low tolerance for persistence on tasks that seem irrelevant Judgment lags behind development of intellect Intensity may lead to power struggles with authorities High activity level; may need less sleep Questions rules, customs and traditions

Strategies: 

Strategies Be patient. These kids need lots of extra attention Sit the student close to the teacher's desk. This gives you not only more control over the child's activities, but also allows you to help him/her more readily Surround students with ADD/ADHD with good role models Have the student repeat instructions and concepts back to you to be sure that he/she was listening Limit distractions as much as possible Break down larger tasks into smaller ones when giving instructions Make frequent use of lists, color-coding, and reminders.

Guess Who?: 

Guess Who? He came from a middle class family of seven children and his father was a carpenter He had an enlarged head at birth and was not able to talk until he was almost 4 years old He enrolled in school 2 years late due to scarlet fever and respiratory infections. He lost his hearing, had a high-pitched voice, and his attendance in school was poor He was stubborn, aloof, shy, self-centered, and disengaged with the learning process. He did not seem to care about school. One teacher said that his brains were addled (rotten), even though he had an excellent memory, read well, displayed perseverance, asked questions, and was a good problem solver He liked to build things. Thomas Edison- the famous inventor

Resources: 

Resources Characteristics of Gifted Children with Learning Disabilities: http://www.tki.org.nz/r/gifted/reading/theory/disabilities_e.php What is Asperger’s Syndrome?:  http://www.gt-cybersource.org/Record.aspx?NavID=2_0&rid=11381 Misdiagnosis and Dual Diagnosis of Gifted Children and Adults Characteristics of Gifted Children with Asperger’s Syndrome: http://ericec.org/fact/asperger.pdf Gifted Children with AS vs. Average Children with AS: Different Minds Proposed Characteristics to Differentiate Ordinary Gifted Children from Gifted Children with Asperger’s Syndrome: http://www.gt-cybersource.org/Record.aspx?NavID=2_0&rid=11381 Detecting Non-Asperger’s Syndrome Children Who Are Simply Gifted: Gifted Children, Gifted Education Misdiagnosis with ADHD: http://www.sengifted.org/articles_counseling/Lind_BeforeReferringAGiftedChildForADD.shtml Gifted Children, Gifted Education Smart Kids with Learning Difficulties Gifted Dyslexics: http://eideneurolearningblog.blogspot.com/2006/05/gifted-dyslexics.html Dyslexics Misdiagnosis: http://www.sengifted.org/articles_counseling/Webb_MisdiagnosisAndDualDiagnosisOfGiftedChildren.shtml

SENG VIDEO – Misdiagnosis of Gifted Children: 

SENG VIDEO – Misdiagnosis of Gifted Children