Production Technology of Maize

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introduction to maize and it's production technologies.

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UMAR NAWAZ Production technology of Maize

Maize ( Zea mays) :

Maize ( Zea mays ) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Order: Poales Family: Poaceae Subfamily: Panicoideae Genus: Zea Species: Z. mays

ORIGIN & History:

ORIGIN & History Corn plant is indigenous to America and principle food grain of native Americans It was domesticated 8000 years ago For western civilization, the story of corn began in 1492 when Columbus's men discovered this new grain in Cuba. Archeological evidence of corn's early presence in the western hemisphere was identified from corn pollen grain considered to be 80,000 years old obtained from drill cores 200 feet below Mexico City Umar.nawaz92@gmail.com Revised January 2002.

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION Highest yielding cereal crop in the world 3 rd most grown crop in world 3 rd largest grown cereal crop in Pakistan 4 th largest crop grown crop in Pakistan Rich source of starch, vitamins, proteins and minerals

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION World production 600 million metric tons World area 118 million hectare Total Pakistan area 1 million hectare Total production 3.5 million metric tons Contribution of different provinces to total area Punjab 39% KPK 56% Sindh 5% Balochistan 3%

Uses of maize :

Uses of maize Making breads Noodles Confectionery Its flour is used For Custards (thinking agent) Jellies (thinking agent) Edible oil Levulinic acid (used as ingredient in anti freeze) plastic and fabrics are made from corn stocks Ethanol used as biomass fuel Corn silk used as herbal supplements An unleavened bread called makki di roti is a popular bread eaten in the Punjab region of India and Pakistan.

Production Technology :

Production Technology

Soil and climate :

Soil and climate Maize is adapted to wild variety of soil and climate Well drain heavy soils with high organic matter content and good water holding capacity. pH 6.5—7.5 Tem. For flowering more than 10 c°

Seed bed preparation :

Seed bed preparation Fine and compact bed needed Land is loosened 20 to 25 cm deep through ploughing or disking 2–3 times Planking

Sowing time :

Sowing time Maize is planted in two seasons Autumn First weak of February up to first week of March Spring Last week of July to mid of august

Seed rate and verities :

Seed rate and verities 12—15 kg per acre (for drill sowing) 8—10 kg per acre (for bed sowing) Hybrid verities Corn—8288 NK—8001 X—2276 Monsanto– 6525

Sowing method :

Sowing method Maize can be sown on flat soil as well as ridges For ridge sowing 75 cm apart ridges are made with ridger Choka method or manual sowing is practiced For flat sowing Automatic tractor drawn drill or hand drill with 75 cm distance between rows is used Thining is done after 10—15 days of emergence

Sowing method :

Sowing method Plant to plant distance 20—25 cm Plant population should be 70—75 thousand per hectare Fertilizer NPK @ 150—100—100 kg per hectare respectively All phosphorus & potassium and half Nitrogen side dressed N is added in two splits first at knee height second at tasseling

Irrigation :

Irrigation Requires frequent irrigation Irrigation 10—15 days intervals Drought will reduce yield Moisture stress at critical stages can reduce yield up to 40% Total irrigations 6—9

Plant protection measures :

Plant protection measures Maize crop faces serious threat after emergence Shoot fly Stem borer Solution Furadan powder should be dropped into shoots @ 20 kg/hectare

Plant protection measures :

Plant protection measures Weeds Reduced yield 29—43% Common weeds Deela Itsit Jangli chulai Tandla Jangli swank Jangli haloon

Harvest & storage:

Harvest & storage Harvested when moisture content of grains are 20—25 % Hand operated or powered maize shellers can be used Store at moisture content 15% Temperature for storage 20—25 c° Humidity 30—50 %

Yield :

Yield Hybrid has potential 125—130 mounds per acre