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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Reaction to Fire of Solid Waste Materials from Natural Fibres Textile Industry: Reaction to Fire of Solid Waste Materials from Natural Fibres Textile Industry by Malgorzata HELWIG Institute of Natural Fibres, Poznan, Poland MC and joint WG Meeting of COST Action 628 ETH, Zurich, Switzerland, 10–12 December 2003Introduction: Introduction The majority of existing industrial technologies face the problem of creating waste to the environment. Textile industry is not an exception. Most of the solid waste related to the chemical fiber industry can be recycled in its manufacturing processes. Therefore, the problem of solid waste utilization in this case is not relevant. Introduction: Introduction A different situation occurs in the natural fiber industry. It generates a significant amount of by-products and waste. In the linen industry where the main product is the linen fiber accounting for only 15% of non deseeded straw, the main by-product are shives constituting approx. 40%. The second type of waste, of highest mass is a coarse fibres, generated mainly in the woolen spinning system. Introduction: Introduction Textile waste produced on industrial scale may create not only a fire hazard but also – in case of small particles like dust – a risk of explosion. A precise estimation of this hazard per unit of a given waste material or by-product allows to predict the fire growth, its spread, and at the same time, to specify the amount of produced smoke and toxic combustion products. Introduction: Introduction ignitability, heat release rate, mass loss rate, heat of combustion, smoke production, emission of toxic gaseous products. The basic reaction to fire parameters of materials are the following:Experimental: Experimental Materials for tests From cotton textile industry From linen textile industry Mixed waste materials: cotton/linen Reaction to fire test method Tests resultsExperimental Waste Materials for Tests: Experimental Waste Materials for Tests Mote 100% cotton Bulk density: 73 kg/m3 Abbreviation: Mote (C)Experimental Waste Materials for Tests: Experimental Waste Materials for Tests Card Waste 100% cotton Bulk density: 24 kg/m3 Abbreviation: CW (C)Experimental Waste Materials for Tests: Experimental Waste Materials for Tests Mixed Card Waste cotton & linen Bulk density: 52 kg/m3 Abbreviation: CW (C+L)Experimental Waste Materials for Tests: Experimental Waste Materials for Tests Card Waste 100% linen Bulk density: 45 kg/m3 Abbreviation: CW (L)Experimental Waste Materials for Tests: Experimental Waste Materials for Tests Yarn Waste 100% cotton Bulk density: 100 kg/m3 Abbreviation: YW (C)Experimental Waste Materials for Tests: Experimental Waste Materials for Tests Yarn Waste Blend cotton & linen Bulk density: 105 kg/m3 Abbreviation: YW (C+L)Experimental Waste Materials for Tests: Experimental Waste Materials for Tests Yarn Waste 100% linen Bulk density: 105 kg/m3 Abbreviation: YW (L)Experimental Waste Materials for Tests: Experimental Waste Materials for Tests Flax Shives Fibres content: app. 5% Bulk density: 105 kg/m3 Abbreviation: FSExperimental Test Method – Cone Calorimeter: Experimental Test Method – Cone CalorimeterSchematic View of the Cone Calorimeter: Schematic View of the Cone CalorimeterSlide17: Oxygen Consumption Theory The basis of oxygen consumption calorimetry is that for every kg of oxygen consumed by a burning object, 13.1 MJ of energy are released. Slide18: Test Conditions according to ISO 5660-1 Number of specimens: minimum 3 for every heat flux and specimen orientation Specimen diameters: length and width = 100 (–5) mm, and thickness ≤ 50 mm Specimen mass: ≤ 500 g Specimens conditioning: to the constant mass at: temperature (23 ± 2) oC, and relative humidity (50 ± 5) % Specimen orientation during test: horizontal, or vertical Heat flux range: 5-100 kW/m2 (recommended by ISO 5660: 25, 35 and 50 kW/m2) Scans interval: minimum 5 secondsSlide19: What Cone Calorimeter Measures? Time of test* [s] Time to ignition* [s] Specimen mass* [g] Exhaust pressure differential [Pa] Smoke temperature [K] O2 concentration* [%] CO concentration [%] CO2 concentration [%] Extinction coefficient* [m-1] During test, the operation program collects the following data: * Tabular and graphical data display in real time on the screenSlide20: What Cone Calorimeter Determines? Heat Release Rate* (HRR) [kW/m2] Average HRR after 1, 3 and 5 minutes from ignition, and until the end of test Peak HRR (at time) Total Heat Released (THR) [MJ/m2] Effective Heat of Combustion (HOC) [MJ/kg] Average HOC during full time of test Mass Loss Rate* (MLR) [g/m2s] Average MLR, taken for scans after 10% of total mass loss and before 90% of total mass loss has occurred Specific Extinction Area (SEA) [m2/kg] Average SEA during full time of test CO and CO2 Yield [kg/kg] Average CO and CO2 yield, taken for scans after 10% of total mass loss and before 90% of total mass loss has occurred * Predicted values of these parameters are displayed during test on the screen After test, the reduce program calculates the following parameters: Tests Conditions: Tests Conditions Before tests, specimens were conditioned acc. to ISO 5660: to constant mass at temp. (23 ± 2) oC, and RH (50 ± 5) % Heat flux: 25 kW/m2 35 kW/m2 50 kW/m2 Temp. of heater: 560 oC 650 oC 745 oCTests ResultsIgnitability: Tests Results IgnitabilityTests ResultsHeat Release Rate: Tests Results Heat Release Rate Card Waste Cotton Linen Cotton & Linen Time (s) HRR (kW/m2)Tests ResultsHeat Release Rate: Tests Results Heat Release Rate Yarn Waste Cotton Linen Cotton & Linen Time (s) HRR (kW/m2)Tests ResultsHeat Release Rate: Tests Results Heat Release Rate Others Mote - Cotton Flax Shives Time (s) HRR (kW/m2)Slide26: Tests Results Peak of Heat Release RateTests ResultsTotal Heat Released: Tests Results Total Heat ReleasedTests ResultsEffective Heat of Combustion: Tests Results Effective Heat of CombustionTests ResultsAverage Effective Heat of Combustion: Cotton Linen Cotton + Linen Tests Results Average Effective Heat of CombustionSlide30: Tests Results Average Specific Extinction AreaSlide31: Tests Results Average CO EmissionSlide32: Tests Results Average CO2 EmissionConclusions: Conclusions Textile waste from linen industry (flax shieves, card waste and yarn waste) are characterized by the lower ignitability but at the same time higher calorific potential (THR, HOC) comparing to textile waste from cotton industry. At the same time form linen waste emission of smoke and toxic CO is lower than in the case of cotton waste. However, it should be emphasize that differences between fire performance of cotton and linen waste are not significant.Conclusions: Conclusions Taking into consideration „dematerialization”, the next stage of research will focus on utilization of waste as a potential fuel, after pre-processing such as briquetting, to obtain a safer and more efficient combustion process. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.