Chapter 10 Spirit of Baroque

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The Spirit of Baroque: 

The Spirit of Baroque Chapter 10 Hum2020

The Baroque in Spain: 

The Baroque in Spain Original from Portuguese: misshapen pearl Spain: Catholic Counter-Reformation( art of mystical spirituality) and absolutist monarchy(monarchs patronized projects and artists) Repercussions in American colonies

El Greco and Catholic Mysticism: 

El Greco and Catholic Mysticism Mysticism: connection to God through senses and feelings Index: list of forbidden books; reforms in Catholic education and revival of faith El Greco: intensely religious; trained in Venice, settled in Toledo Burial of Count Orgaz influenced by Raphael. Individual baroque style

Spanish Baroque Architecture: 

Spanish Baroque Architecture Few commissions from Phillip II. Phillip used Italian artists for his El Escorial palace Palace, mausoleum, monastery to St. Lawrence Influenced by Michelangelo’s St. Peter’s Gold and silver from the New World La Compania in Cuzco Peru and Cathedral of Mexico: Triumph of Christianity over native faiths.


Velazquez Diego Velazquez, court painter to Philip IV Realist; bold color and brushwork Did not attain Rubens’ social status Las Meninas: genre painting King and Queen and painter in painting Red cross: nobility awarded to him by King

Cervantes and Don Quijote: 

Cervantes and Don Quijote Idealistic knight confuses real world with chivalric fantasy Draws people and changes them Cervantes: Greatest literary work of 17 century Sancho represents reality who brings Don Quijote back from his fantasy

Don Quijote: 

Don Quijote Contrast between reality and fantasy, truth and falsehood, issues of life and death Spanish Inquisition executed heretics on flimsy evidence like Don Quijote’s fantasies Masterpiece about the chief intellectual problems of his age

The Baroque in Italy: 

The Baroque in Italy More exuberant baroque style in Italy New buildings and artistic patronage exceeding Renaissance Ornamentation, dramatic and theatrical, monumental scale of works

The Baroque Master Bernini: 

The Baroque Master Bernini Pope Urban VIII hired Gianlorenzo Bernini to beautify Rome Surpassed Renaissance architects in ambition and scope Baldacchino, Piazza to St Peter’s, Colonnade: arms of the Church to welcome worshippers


Sculpture: dynamic, energetic David: ready to cast his stone, coiled to release in baroque diagonal. Face self-portrait of Bernini Cornaro Chapel: Ecstasy of St. Teresa: Saint’s union with God Teresa consumed with love for God Sculpted figures of Cornaro family in balconies witness vision Baroque religious emotionalism

Italian Baroque Painting: 

Italian Baroque Painting Caravaggio: Dramatic chiaroscuro to depict biblical scenes. Italian peasants for models The Calling of St. Matthew: anachronistic shows deep belief in salvation of sinners Artemisa Gentileschi: pupil of Caravaggio. Judith Slaying Holofernes foreground light propels action forward: dramatic

The Birth of Opera: 

The Birth of Opera By 17th century Italy losing ground in the arts except in opera Opera: musical theater, sung, with orchestra and staged with costumes and sets Florentine Camerata Claudio Monteverdi: Orfeo: Orpheus descends to Hell to rescue Euridice Expanded recitatives


Solos convey intense feelings Chordal dissonances create discomfort that anticipates a resolution Interest in human emotion evidenced in Caravaggio’s and Bernini’s works Aria: independent song revealing feelings of character. Showcased the virtuosity of singers Opera seria and opera buffa

Vivaldi and Italian Baroque Music: 

Vivaldi and Italian Baroque Music Vivaldi: musical director of conservatory. Virtuoso of the violin from Venice, Master of the baroque concerto, musical form with small group of instrument in contrasts with a larger orchestra. The Four Seasons: Brilliant composition of four dramatic episodes connected by a recurring melody. Studied by Bach later.


Absolutism Absolute monarchies: solution to maintain social order; control of every aspect of national life Hobbes didn’t believe humans could rule themselves Louis XIV: L’etat, c’est moi!

The Baroque in France: 

The Baroque in France Reign of Louis XIV-- “Sun King” 1660 Sponsored arts and theater--controlled them via the academies: Rules revived Greek and Roman forms: neoclassical style flourished alongside Italian baroque


Versailles Balanced and lavish--compromise between neoclassical rules and baroque excess Enlarged the hunting lodge; eventually moved his court there--50,000 p, 20,000 h Le Vau, (a), Le Notre, (g d), Lebrun,( I d) Mansart--Hall of Mirrors Established French national style

The Performing Arts at Versailles: 

The Performing Arts at Versailles Academie Francaise: judged in matters of literary form and taste--rules for theater 5 acts, unities of time and place provide a moral lesson Moliere: attacked hypocrisy of French society: Tartuffe, The Would-Be Gentleman, The Imaginary Invalid his best plays. Wit and observation of society.


Lully collaborated with Moliere in comedy-ballets Became the head of the Royal Academy of Music He developed classical ballet with five basic foot positions. Employed professional women dancers Composed 20 operas--never achieved greatness of Italian operas

Rubens and Poussin: Painters of the Court: 

Rubens and Poussin: Painters of the Court Rubens: (Flemish)master of baroque style Dynamic compositions with lavish color: Marie de Medici’s 21 canvases Themes of aristocracy: hunting, history, mythology, portraits Rape of the Daughter of Leucippus, Henry IV Receiving the Portrait of Marie de Medici


Poussin Baroque Neoclassicism: cool and defined figures as classical statues Clarity of The Holy Family on the Steps Pyramidal grouping from the Renaissance Regularity of structure Academic tastes

Music of the Protestant Baroque: 

Music of the Protestant Baroque No absolutist monarch to impose rules and tastes Small German courts provided patrons

Johann Sebastian Bach: 

Johann Sebastian Bach Excelled in both secular and sacred music. Was not known outside his area. Two features of baroque music: counterpoint and basso continuo Six Brandenberg Concertos Appointed music director of St. Thomas church in Leipzig Cantatas (over 300): choral work for Lutheran worship

The “Well-tempered Keyboard”: 

The “Well-tempered Keyboard” Musical exercises proved that any stringed keyboard instrument could be tuned to accommodate all 24 major and minor keys. Prelude free form--shows off the keyboard player’s ability Fugue--musical form developed in counterpoint St. Matthew’s Passion

The Dutch Baroque: 

The Dutch Baroque Vigorous commerce and political independence in the Netherlands Churches bare, but public halls decorated with paintings Demand for paintings eliminated need for patrons


Vermeer Unknown in his day: now regarded as a master of light and color Feel for the Dutch interior The Allegory of Painting and The Milkmaid Thirty canvases


Rembrandt Dutch from Amsterdam--mastered all popular subjects of his age Transcended his peers in visual and psychological richness The Night Watch--group portraits commissioned by Dutch civic groups as complex as Velazquez and El Greco’s masterpieces


Lost patrons, his wife, his child. Religious work: Christ Healing the Sick Etching: lines scratched on a wax-covered metal plate. Plate treated with acid that etches the metal; prints then taken from the plate. Self Portraits: more than 60 Psychological insight

Christopher Wren’s London: 

Christopher Wren’s London St. Paul’s: Gothic, Renaissance and baroque styles Influenced by Bernini and Mansart After the fire of London he constructed the new St. Paul’s


Handel German by birth, adopted by England. Leading composer of baroque period. Trained in Italy, wrote operas King George I was his patron Oratorios: narrative choral work with operatic elements but without action, scenery or costumes: Messiah


Messiah Presented in Dublin Ireland 1742 Jesus’ birth, death and resurrection Hallelujah chorus: British king stood up and started a tradition

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