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Slide1: 

English-Speaking Countries: A Survey 英语国家概况

Slide2: 

The United Kingdom

Slide3: 

The Origins of a Nation (5000 BC – AD 1066) Early Settlers (5000 BC – 55 BC)

Iberians: 

3000 BC New Stone Age From Iberian peninsula, now Spain Communal burial mounds in Wiltshire & Dorset Stonehenge in Wiltshire Iberians

English-Speaking Countries Unit 2: 

English-Speaking Countries Unit 2

English-Speaking Countries Unit 2: 

English-Speaking Countries Unit 2

English-Speaking Countries Unit 2: 

English-Speaking Countries Unit 2

English-Speaking Countries Unit 2: 

English-Speaking Countries Unit 2

Beaker Folk: 

2000 BC From today’s Holland & Rhineland Bell-shaped drinking vessels Buried in crouching positions Individual graves Beaker Folk

Beaker Folk: 

Art of pottery making Ability to fashion bronze tools Custom of individual burial Forts – Maiden Castle in Dorset Beaker Folk

Celts: 

700 BC Taller, fairer race From today’s France, Belgium & southern Germany Celts

Celts: 

Three waves: 1. Gaels – 600 BC 2. Brythons – 400 BC 3. Belgae – 150 BC Celts

Celts: 

Drove some Iberians to north & west Kept rest as slaves Two races mixed: Iberians + Celts Celts

Celts: 

Celts Practised farmers Drained marshlands Built houses of wood & wickerwork with weatherproof coating of mud Ironworkers

Celts: 

Celts Ancestors of Highland Scots Irish Welsh Languages: basis of Welsh & Gaelic

Slide17: 

The Origins of a Nation (5000 BC – AD 1066) Roman Britain (55 BC – AD 410)

Roman Invasion: 

Roman Invasion British recorded history begins with the Roman invasion. Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 BC. The successful invasion took place in AD 43, headed by the Emperor Claudius.

Roman Invasion: 

Roman Invasion For nearly 400 years Britain was under Roman occupation, but it was never a total occupation ∵ 1. Some parts of the country resisted. 2. Roman troops were often withdrawn from Britain to fight in other parts of the Roman Empire.

Roman Invasion: 

Roman Invasion The Romans built two great walls to keep the Picts out of the area they had conquered: Hadrian’s Wall Antonine Wall

Hadrian’s Wall: 

Hadrian’s Wall

Roman Invasion: 

Roman Invasion Romans faced three problems: 1. The Picts attacked them periodically; 2. Saxon pirates attacked them in the southeast; 3. Control was only effective in the south-eastern part of the country.

Roman Invasion: 

Roman Invasion The Romans built a network of walled towns, major and secondary roads in Britain. The suffix -caster or -chester in Eng1ish place names – Lancaster, Winchester and Chester itself – derives from castra, the Latin word for camp.

Roman Invasion: 

Roman Invasion Roman capital: London (Londinium) Made good use of Britain’s natural resources Built beautiful houses Constructed a network of major and secondary roads Brought Christianity to Britain

Roman Invasion: 

Roman Invasion Romans pulled out in AD 410 because 1. barbarians from Eastern Europe at the gates of Rome; 2. under repeated attacks from Picts & Scots; 3. needing to set up a new military front on the east coast to hold off Saxon tribes.

Roman Invasion: 

Roman Invasion The Romans occupied Britain for nearly 400 years. However, they never conquered Britain completely. The Roman impact upon the Britons was surprisingly limited. The Romans always treated the Britons as a subject people of slave c1ass. Never during the 4 centuries did the Romans and Britons intermarry. The Romans had no impact on the language or culture of ordinary Britons.

Slide27: 

The Origins of a Nation (5000 BC – AD 1066) The Anglo-Saxons (446 – 871)

Anglo-Saxons: 

Anglo-Saxons Three Teutonic tribes: 1. Angles 2. Saxons 3. Jutes

Anglo-Saxons: 

Anglo-Saxons Principal kingdoms of Heptarchy: 1. Kent 2. Essex 3. Sussex 4. Wessex 5. East Anglia 6. Mercia 7. Northumbria

Egbert 829 overlord: 

Egbert 829 overlord

Anglo-Saxons: 

Teutonic religion Tiu: god of war Woden, king of heaven Thor, god of storms Freya, goddess of peace Anglo-Saxons

Anglo-Saxons: 

In 597, Pope Gregory I sent St. Augustine to England to convert the English to Christianity. St. Augustine soon became the first Archbishop of Canterbury. Monasteries sprang up throughout the country and became places of learning. Anglo-Saxons

Anglo-Saxons: 

Anglo-Saxons The Anglo-Saxons laid the foundations of the English state: Divided the country into shires, which the Normans later called counties, with shire courts and shire reeves, or sheriffs, responsible for administering laws as comprehensive as any in the early medieval world;

Anglo-Saxons: 

Anglo-Saxons Devised the three-field farming system which continued until the agricultural revolution in the 18th century; Established the manorial system, whereby the lord of the manor collected taxes, and organized the local army; Created the Witan to advise the king, the basis of the Privy Council.

Vikings and Danish Invasions: 

Vikings and Danish Invasions The Norwegian Vikings and the Danes from Denmark attacked England from the end of the 8th century. They became a serious problem in the 9th century, especially 835-878. They even captured York, an important center of Christianity in 867. By the middle of the 9th century, the Vikings and the Danes were posing a threat to the Saxon kingdom of Wessex.

Alfred the Great: 

Alfred the Great Alfred, King of Wessex, defeated the Danes and came to an agreement with them. The Danes gained control of the north and east of England (“the Danelaw”), while Alfred would rule the rest. Alfred also persuaded their leader and several warriors to be baptized as Christians.

Alfred the Great: 

Alfred the Great The father of the British navy Learned man Alfred the Great

Alfred the Great: 

Alfred the Great Founded a strong fleet to beat the Danes at sea; Reorganized the Saxon army; Taught himself Latin at the age of 40; Translated Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People; Encouraged learning in others, Established schools; Formulated a legal system.

Slide40: 

The Origins of a Nation (5000 BC – AD 1066) The Norman Conquest (1066)

King Edward: 

King Edward “the Confessor” had spent most of his life in Normandy more concerned with the building of Westminster Abbey far more Norman than Saxon had promised the English throne to William, Duke of Normandy

Norman Conquest: 

Norman Conquest Four men laid claim to English throne 1. Harold Hardrada, King of Norway 2. William, Duke of Normandy 3. Tostig, deposed Earl of Northumbria (Queen’s brother) 4. Harold Godwinson, hereditary ruler of Wessex (Queen’s other brother)

Norman Conquest: 

Norman Conquest Tostig joined King of Norway Both defeated and killed by King Harold Harold’s exhausted troops resisted William’s finest horsemen in Europe Harold shot dead through right eye by an arrow Anglo-Saxon England perished…

Slide44: 

Battle of Hastings

Norman Conquest: 

Norman Conquest When? 1066 Who? William the Conqueror What? Norman Conquest

Norman Conquest: 

Norman Conquest The Norman Conquest is perhaps the best-known event in Eng1ish history. William the Conqueror confiscated a1most al1 the land and gave it to his Norman followers. He replaced the weak Saxon rule with a strong Norman government. So the feudal system was completely established in England. Relations with the Continent were opened and civilization and commerce were extended. Norman-French cu1ture, language, manners, and architecture were introduced. The Church was brought into closer connection with Rome, and the church courts were separated from the civil courts.

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