Italy1PIEDMONT_VALLE_AOSTA_LOMBARDY_LIGURIA

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WINE BY THE LAW Italy’s wine laws are based on the wine laws of France. On July 30, 1935, a branch of the French Ministry of Agriculture was formed to manage the administration of the process of making wine.   In Italy the great leap forward came in 1963 with a presidential decree, commonly known as the DOC WINE LAWS . Under this system, Italy’s Ministry of Agriculture controls and standardises many of the grape growing and winemaking processes. Some of the most important elements are: - Areas of production and permissible grape varietals - Alcohol content - Colour - Permissible yield per hectare (high yield equals overproduction) - Winemaking practices (pruning, fertilizing, etc.)

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Italy puts its wines into 4 categories: I. VINO DA TAVOLA ( VdT ): These are simple table wines, which are forbidden to put on their labels a vintage, a grape varietal, or a growing area. Some of Italy’s best wines were originally VdT wines, but have been upgraded to IGT or DOC status. Examples include Sassicaia and the Super Tuscans, such as Tignanello . II. INDICAZIONE GEOGRAFICA TIPICA (IGT): This category was created in the 1990’s to service as a middle ground between the DOC and VdT categories. IGT is a broad geographic classification. IGT wines are vintage dated and varietals are permitted to be displayed on the labels. Some of Italy’s best, most revered, most expensive, and highly collected wines are IGT.

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III. DENOMINAZIONE DI ORIGINE CONTROLLATA (DOC): In 1966 Vernaccia di San Gimignano became Italy’s first DOC wine. Today there are over 333 defined DOC zones throughout Italy. This number increases annually because local growers apply to the Ministry of Agriculture for entry into DOC status, once they indicate that they are producing a special wine from a special delimited geographic area. Almost 25% of all of Italy’s wines are designated as DOC today. IV. DENOMINAZIONE DI ORIGINE CONTROLLATA E GARANTITA(DOCG): This category, uniquely Italian, was created in the 1960’s. By the 1980’s, several of Italy’s historic areas became the first wave of DOCG wines. The salient features include a requirement to be bottled within the zone of production and that samples be submitted to a board for tasting and approval . Approved wines are granted a special strip, issued by the Ministry of Finance, usually placed on the capsule area of the bottle. Wines that do not qualify to be worthy of DOCG stature must be sold as VdT , a much lower category in quality and price.

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GEOGRAPHICAL NAME OF A VITICULTURAL AREA USED TO DESIGNATE THE LOCAL WINE PRODUCTION INDICAZIONE GEOGRAFICA TIPICA - I.G.T.

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GEOGRAPHICAL AREA PARTICULARY SUITABLE TO PRODUCE HIGH QUALITY WINE, MAINLY DUE TO THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN ABILITIES DENOMINAZIONE DI ORIGINE ORIGIN DENOMINATION DOC / DOCG

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DENOMINAZIONE DI ORIGINE ORIGIN DENOMINATION 333 DOC 74 DOCG (Updated 2017)

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THE LAW ALLOWS SPECIFIC DENOMINATION CLASSICO It ’ s reserved for wine produced in the oldest region, the most traditional

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RISERVA May be used only for wines that have been aged at least two years longer than normal wine. Normally oak aged Not used for sparkling wine THE LAW ALLOWS SPECIFIC DENOMINATION

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SUPERIORE Wines classified as Superiore are wines with at least 0.5 more alcohol by volume than similar unclassified wines, and they are produced using a smaller allowed quantity of grapes that yield a higher quality of sugar and concentrated flavours. THE LAW ALLOWS SPECIFIC DENOMINATION

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NOVELLO Wines have to be produced up to 30% with carbonic maceration method. Selling cannot happen before 00.01 hour, every year on the 6th November Bottling not permitted after 31/12 THE LAW ALLOWS SPECIFIC DENOMINATION

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FORTIFIED PROCUDED FROM A BASE WINE WITH MINIMUM 12°ALCOHOL, ADDED WITH FURTHER ALCOHOL, MISTELLA, CONCENTRATED MUST, TO REACH 16-22 FINAL ALCOHOL AND 50GR SUGARS FOR SWEET WINES, AND LESS THAN 40 FOR DRY WINES THE LAW ALLOWS SPECIFIC DENOMINATION

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FOR SPARKLING WINE IS COMPULSORY DRY, BRUT, EXTRA DRY, SEC, DEMI SEC, DOUX/SWEET REFERRING TO RESIDUAL SUGAR ADDED MILLESIMATO = SINGLE VINTAGE

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AOSTA VALLEY

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7 DOC ( NO DOCG) AOSTA VALLEY Blanc de Morgex et de La Salle Enfer d'Arvier Torrette Nus Chambave Arnad-Montjovet Donnas

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VINEYARDS ARE MAINLY PLANTED ON THE LEFT OF THE DORA BALTEA RIVER: 65% MOUNTAIN VITICULTURE, 35% HILLS VITICULTURE

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TERRACED VINEYARDS IN AOSTA VALLEY

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15% WHITE GRAPES 85% RED GRAPES

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TRADITIONAL ESPALIER SHAPED AND PERGOLA VINEYARD WITH OLD STONE PILES SUPPORTING STRUCTURES

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ESPALIER-SHAPED AND PERGOLA VINEYARD WITH OAK STAKE/PILES

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PERGOLA SHAPED IN JULY

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VALLE AOSTA CLIMATE CAN BE WARM IN SUMMER DURING THE DAY THE NIGHT TEMPERATURE PLUMMETS RAPIDLY THIS DYNAMIC ALLOWS TO PRODUCE WINE WITH A LOT OF PLEASANT ACIDITY, FINE AROMAS, BUT DON’T EXPECT BIG, DEEP, CONCENTRATED AND HEAVY WEIGHT WINES

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Piemonte grapes: Nebbiolo Dolcetto Moscato Local Aosta Valley varieties: Petit Rouge Fumin Prëmetta Blanc de Morgex also known as Prié Blanc French cultivars: Gamay Chardonnay Syrah and Pinot Noir Swiss cultivar: Petite Arvine . Nebbiolo might be called Picoutener and Pinot Grigio is known as Malvoisie AOSTA VALLEY GRAPES

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DONNAS DORA CHAMBAVE MOSCATO

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PIEDMONT CONTINENTAL CLIMATE HIGH TEMPERATURE RANGE VINEYARDS ARE PLANTED ON THE HILLS

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TYPICAL VINEYARDS IN PIEDMONT

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In general, Piemontese wines come from small properties, often still owned and worked by the same family for generations. Piedmont makes the highest percentage of quality wines in Italy. Piedmont is home to some of the most robust, long-lived wines in the world, many of which are indigenous to Piedmont and rarely excel anywhere else in the world.

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65% RED GRAPES 35% WHITE GRAPES

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42 DOC DOC NORTH AREA Boca Bramaterra Canavese Carema Collina Torinese Colline Novaresi Colline Saluzzesi Coste della Sesia Fara Freisa di Chieri Lessona Pinerolese Sizzano Valli Ossolane Valsusa DOC LANGHE Alba Barbera d'Alba Dolcetto d'Alba Langhe Nebbiolo d'Alba Verduno Pelaverga DOC ASTIGIANO Albugnano Calosso Cisterna d'Asti Dolcetto d'Asti Freisa d'Asti Grignolino d'Asti Loazzolo Malvasia di Casorzo d'Asti Malvasia di Castelnuovo D. Bosco Terre Alfieri DOC MONFERRATO Barbera del Monferrato Colli Tortonesi -Colli Tortonesi Subarea Monleale -Colli Tortonesi Subarea Terre di Libarna Cortese dell'Alto Monferrato Dolcetto d'Acqui Dolcetto di Ovada Gabiano Grignolino del Monferrato Casalese Monferrato Piemonte Rubino di Cantavenna Strevi

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17 DOCG DOCG NORTH AREA Erbaluce di Caluso o Caluso Gattinara Ghemme DOCG LANGHE Alta Langa Barbaresco Barolo Dogliani Dolcetto di Diano d'Alba / Diano d'Alba Roero DOCG MONFERRATO Barbera del Monferrato Superiore Dolcetto di Ovada Superiore o Ovada Gavi o Cortese di Gavi Nizza DOCG ASTIGIANO Asti - Asti Subarea Canelli - Asti Subarea Santa Vittoria d'Alba - Asti Subarea Strevi Barbera d'Asti - Barbera d'Asti Subarea Nizza - Barbera d'Asti Subarea Tinella - Barbera d'Asti Subarea Colli Astiani o Astiano Brachetto d'Acqui o Acqui Ruché di Castagnole Monferrato

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PIEDMONTE RED GRAPE VARIETIES NEBBIOLO BARBERA DOLCETTO GRIGNOLINO RUCHÉ FREISA BONARDA BRACCHETTO

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PIEDMONTE WHITE GRAPE VARIETIES ARNEIS CORTESE MOSCATO ERBALUCE

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LANGHE LANDSCAPE: white soil

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LANGHE SOIL Barolo region can be divided in two areas: Left: Tortonian soil (youngest area) Right: Elvezian soil (oldest area) Pliocene period

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NEBBIOLO THE KING OF THE LANGHE OTHER NAMES: PICOTENDRE PICOTENER PICOULTENER SPANNA

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3 clones with different characteristic Lampia Michet Rosè NEEDS BEST EXPOSURE TO REACH MATURITY AND CALCAREOUS SOIL ONLY 3% WINE TOTAL PRODUCTION NEBBIOLO

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BAROLO BARBARESCO AREA

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MARCHESA DI BAROLO CAMILLO BENSO CONTE DI CAVOUR Before the mid-19th century, Barolo was made in a richly sweet and fruity style which wasn’t to the taste of Count of Cavour. Louis Oudart a French winemaker from Champagne was then hired to create what is now Barolo, a “dry” red wine. Barolo was named after the Marchesa of Barolo Giulia Colbert. This new, “dry” red wine soon became one of Italy’s greatest reds.

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BAROLO DOCG 100% NEBBIOLO GRAPE, SUB-VARIETIES (CLONES) LAMPIA, MICHET, ROS È Only vineyards planted in primarily calcareous-clay soils in the hills with suitable slopes and orientations are considered suitable for Barolo production . The wines must undergo at least 38 months aging prior to commercial release, of which 18 must be spent in barrel (the remainder in bottle). For the added designation of riserva, the total aging time increases to 62 months .

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BAROLO

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BRASATO AL BAROLO

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Best areas: Barolo --- Elegant and smooth wines La Morra --- Muscular wines, need ageing Castiglione Falletto --- Well balanced and elegant Serralunga --- Floral and elegant can reach excellence Monforte d’Alba --- Robust and mineral Diano d’Alba Novello Grinzane Cherasco Verduno Roddi Communes of the Docg Barolo (11)

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BASIC BAROLOS ARE OFTEN A BLEND OF DIFFERENT VINEYARDS. BETTER BAROLOS HAVE A SPECIFIC COMMUNE OR VINEYARD NAMED IT’S LIKE THE FRENCH CRU (BRICCO)

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CEREQUIO, BUSSIA, BRUNATE BRICCO ROCCHE BRICCO or SORI’ = CRU / SINGLE VINEYARD

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BARBARESCO DOCG NEBBIOLO GRAPES 100% MINIMUM 2 YEARS AGEING – 1 IN OAK RISERVA: 4 YEARS

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The main difference in Barolo and Barbaresco is in the soils. The soil in Barbaresco is richer in nutrients and, because of this, the vines don’t produce as much tannin as found in the wines of Barolo. Both wines smell of roses, perfume and cherry and they both have a very long finish. The difference is in the taste on the mid-palate; the tannin won’t hit you quite as hard in the Barbaresco. BARBARESCO DOCG

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BARBARESCO 4 COMMUNES BARBARESCO, NEIVE, TREISO, SAN ROCCO

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ROERO (red) NEBBIOLO ROERO ARNEIS (white)

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ROERO RED: 95% Nebbiolo grapes with the addition of 2%–5% of non-aromatic red varieties. Roero must be aged in cellars for twenty months, six of them in wooden barrels, while Roero riserva (reserve) must be aged at least 32 months total. ROERO WHITE: 95% Arneis grapes, 5% others, can be still dry or sparkling

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ROERO RED & ROERO ARNEIS VINEYARDS

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NEBBIOLO GHEMME DOCG GATTINARA DOCG

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THE DOLCETTO’S FAMILY DOLCETTO D’ALBA DOLCETTO D’ASTI DOLCETTO DI DOGLIANI SUPERIORE DOCG DOLCETTO DI DIANO D’ALBA DOLCETTO DI OVADA SUP DOCG

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THE BARBERA’S FAMILY BARBERA D’ALBA BARBERA D’ASTI DOGC BARBERA DEL MONFERRATO SUP. DOCG Barbera 35% of Piemonte vineyards

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ASTI MOSCATO DOCG VINEYARDS ASTI SPUMANTE DOCG MOSCATO D’ASTI DOCG

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GRIGNOLINO D’ASTI GRIGNOLINO DEL MONFERRATO (LIGHT RED) BRACHETTO D’ACQUI (RED SPARKLING SWEET) GAVI DI GAVI O CORTESE DI GAVI (WHITE DRY AND SPUMANTE) ERBALUCE DI CALUSO (WHITE DRY OR SWEET) RUCHÉ (MEDIUM BODY RED)

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GAVI DI GAVI O CORTESE DI GAVI Best selling of Piedmont in UK 100% indigenous Cortese grapes its vineyards are mainly found in the hills of 13 communes in the province of Alessandria (of which the most prominent are Gavi, Novi Ligure , Serravalle Scrivia and Arquata Scrivia . Gavi was Italy's first white wine to gain international repute and is still considered one of the top-ranking Italian whites today.

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LESSONA The small zone with just eight hectares on gravelly soil, in the province of Biella, Lessona. Wine was from here has existed since the 14th Century. From SPANNA = Nebbiolo (75-100%) and Bonarda = Uva Rara, and / or Vespolina (up to 25%) gained. This wine was used to toast the conclusion to the Italian unification

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LOMBARDY

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Alpine, cool climate temperate by the lakes in the north Mild climate in the south, close to the Appennin mountains

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58 % red berries grapes 42% white berries grapes

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22 DOC Bonarda dell'Oltrepò Pavese Botticino Buttafuoco dell'Oltrepò Pavese o Buttafuoco Capriano del Colle Casteggio Cellatica Curtefranca Garda Garda Colli Mantovani Lambrusco Mantovano Lugana Oltrepò Pavese Pinot Grigio dell'Oltrepò Pavese Pinot Nero dell'Oltrepò Pavese Riviera del Garda Bresciano o Garda Bresciano San Colombano al Lambro o San Colombano Sangue di Giuda dell'Oltrepò Pavese o Sangue di Giuda San Martino della Battaglia Terre del Colleoni o Colleoni Valcalepio Valtellina Rosso o Rosso di Valtellina Valtènesi 5 DOCG Franciacorta Oltrepò Pavese Metodo Classico Scanzo o Moscato di Scanzo Sforzato di Valtellina o Sfursat di Valtellina Valtellina Superiore

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MAIN GRAPE VARIETIES Nebbiolo (Chiavennasca) Pinot Nero Pinot bianco Chardonnay Trebbiano di Lugana Moscato di Scanzo Barbera Croatina Groppello

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MAIN AREAS VALTELLINA FRANCIACORTA OLTREPO’ PAVESE RIVIERA DEL GARDA/ BRESCIA (Lugana) MANTOVA (Lambrusco)

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VALTELLINA OLTREPO' PAVESE FRANCIACORTA RIVIERA DEL GARDA LUGANA LABRUSCO MANTOVANO

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TYPICAL TERRACES VALTELLINA VINEYARDS

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VALTELLINA SUPERIORE DOCG FULL BODY RED FROM NEBBIOLO (CHIAVENNASCA) GRAPES SUB AREAS SASSELLA, GRUMELLO, INFERNO, VALGELLA, MAROGGIA

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VALTELLINA SFURZAT DOCG Made with Chiavennasca grapes (Valtellina name for Nebbiolo) A process done to drain most of the water out of the grapes so to obtain a much more rich and concentrated juice

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FRANCIACORTA DOCG

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FRANCIACORTA DOCG DRY SPARKLING WINE, BOTTLE FERMENTED

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Franciacorta wine region is located in the Brescia province, in the hills, south-east of the foot of Lake Iseo . Roughly square in shape, it stretches eastwards for 25km from the Oglio River until reaching the Mella River valley and the western suburbs of Brescia city .

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FRANCIACORTA DOCG CHARDONNAY PINOT BIANCO PINOT NERO ROSE’ MADE WITH 25% PINOT NOIR

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FRANCIACORTA DOCG VINEYARDS

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CATEGORIES - Franciacorta Non Vintage: at least 18 months (lees contact) - Franciacorta Satèn and Franciacorta Rosé non-vintage: at least 24 months - Franciacorta Satèn Vintage, Franciacorta Rosé vintage and Franciacorta Vintage: at least 30 months - Franciacorta Riservas Satèn , Franciacorta Riservas Rosé  and Franciacorta Riservas : at least 60 months and also Franciacorta’s still wines, Curtefranca DOC Bianco and Rosso and Sebino IGT.  

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SAT É N MADE ONLY WITH WHITE GRAPES: CHARDONNAY, PINOT BIANCO IT HAS LESS CO ² (ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE) IN THE BOTTLE FRANCIACORTA DOCG

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FRANCIACORTA DOCG

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OLTREPO' PAVESE METODO CLASSICO DOCG

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OLTREPO' PAVESE METODO CLASSICO DOCG PINOT NERO 70%, CHARDONNAY, PINOT GRIGIO, PINOT BIANCO WHITE or ROSE’

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OLTREPO' PAVESE DOC Specialised in monovarietals BONARDA (croatina) RIESLING ITALICO

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RIVIERA DEL GARDA GARDA DOC CLASSICO CHIARETTO: Groppello Marzemino Sangiovese Rosé wines

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MOSCATO DI SCANZO DOCG Sweet wine made using dark-skinned grape variety. The Moscato di Scanzo grape is of ancient origin and was probably brought to Scanzo hills by Roman legions, as prize of war won over the Galls in the Bergamo area, although the most remote origins are probably Greek. It belongs to the family of Moscati .

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LIGURIA

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LIGURIA 35% HILLS 65% MOUNTAINS

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VERY STEEP SLOPES

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VERY STEEP SLOPES

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DOC Albenga, Colli di Luni CinqueTerre Cinqueterre Sciachetrà Colline di Levanto Golfo del Tigullio Pornassio (Ormeasco di Pornassio)   Rossese di Dolce Acqua, Riviera Ligure di Ponente Val Polcevera

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WEST SIDE PIEDMONTESE STYLE: MONO VARIETALS EAST SIDE TUSCAN STYLE: MORE GRAPES IN THE BLEND

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ROSSESE DI DOLCEACQUA RIVIERA LIGURE DI PONENTE CINQUETERRE COLLI DI LUNI (1) (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4)

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RIVIERA LIGURE DI PONENTE DOC ROSSESE DI DOLCEACQUA PIGATO VERMENTINO ORMEASCO ROSSESE

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CINQUE TERRE DOC CINQUE TERRE SCIACCHETRA’ DOC sweet wine GRAPES: BOSCO, ALBAROLA, VERMENTINO

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COLLI DI LUNI DOC VERMENTINO+TREBBIANO VERMENTINO SANGIOVESE, CANAIOLO, POLLERA NERA TUSCANY

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