FOODandWINE_PAIRING_OliveOil_Vinegar_AromaticHerbs

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OLIVE OIL

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OLIVE OIL Olive oil is a fat obtained from the olive (the fruit of Olea europaea ; family Oleaceae ), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin . It is commonly used not only for cooking , but also for cosmetics , pharmaceuticals , and soaps. Olive oil is used throughout the world, but especially in Mediterranean countries and, in particular, Spain , Italy and Greece , which has the highest consumption per person.

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OLIVE OIL The traditional method of extracting olive oil from the fruit is virtually the same today as it has been for thousands of years. Greeks first began pressing olives over 5000 years ago.

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OLIVE OIL At harvest time, which varies from region to region, olives are harvested by hand, then collected in nets placed around the foot of the tree

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OLIVE OIL PRODUCTION PROCESS TRADITIONAL Method or Mechanical process called OLIVE PRESS The advantage of the Traditional Olive Press is a better grinding of the olives, thereby reducing the release of oil oxidation enzymes MODERN Method or Industrial Extraction called Decanter Centrifugation The advantage of Decanter Centrifugation is that it results in the highest percent of oil extraction.

EXTRACTION PROCESS Steps:

EXTRACTION PROCESS Steps CLEANING THE OLIVES GRINDING THE OLIVES INTO A PASTE MALAXING (MIXING THE PASTE) COLD PRESS SEPARATING THE OIL FROM THE WATER

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CLEANING After the harvest the olives are taken to the mill. They are then weighed and put through a cleaning process where they receive a water bath* and the stems, leaves and any debris are removed. This is to reduce the presence of contaminants, especially soil which can create a particular flavour defect called "soil taste” *Important: cool room temperature

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CRUSHING It is essential to process the olives shortly after they are picked. Giant granite stones weighing several tons are used to crush the olives and pips into a mash*. * 2 wheels: 35\40 mins; 3 wheels: 30 mins; 4 wheels: 20 mins

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MALAXING Secondly the crushed olives must be stirred, a process called ‘ MALAXING ’ (mixing). The grounding is an important step in the production of olive oil. It has three objective : - to guarantee that the olives are well ground - to allow enough time for the olive drops to join together - to allow the fruit enzymes to produce some of the oil aromas and taste . The temperature should be max 20 Celsius - not so cold that the vacuoles cannot release the oil, not so hot that the oil loses its punch Very slow process: from 20 to 45 mins to avoid heating.

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CLASSIFICATION OLIVE OIL 3 main types of olive oil: Extra Virgin Olive Oil Virgin Olive Oil Olive Oil

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CLASSIFICATION OLIVE OIL Extra Virgin Olive Oil Extra Virgin Olive oil is made from the FIRST PRESSING of perfectly fresh olives and usually processed without excess heat, COLD PRESSED , to maintain the flavor, aroma and health benefits. To make the grade of “Extra Virgin” it must have a free acidity level (free fatty acid) of NO MORE THAN 1% (usually 0.8%) and excellent aroma and taste.

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CLASSIFICATION OLIVE OIL Virgin Olive Oil Produced using the same methods as for the extra-virgin, virgin olive oil must conform to the chemical and organoleptic parameters laid down for this category by the EEC Regulation. The acidity must not exceed 2% and only slight defects which may compromise taste and fragrance should be discerned in the Panel Test.

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CLASSIFICATION OLIVE OIL Olive Oil This is produced through an industrial process of chemichal or physical refinement and the blending of the different types of oil. The industrial process and the blending with extra-virgin olive oil improves the product and renders it edible. However the acidity must not be greater than 1%. No organoleptic test is prescribed for this type of oil.

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TASTING OIL

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VISUAL EXAMINATION Limpidity Fluidity Colour NOT IMPORTANT TO EVALUATE THE QUALITY

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Olfactory Taste-Olfactory Examination

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28°C The right temperature to taste extra virgin olive oil

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KEEP THE GLASS CLOSE, SWIRL AND SMELL

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HOW TO TASTE OIL -Sip and move the oil in your mouth -Inhale between the teeth two-three times to evaluate the final sensations

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OLFACTORY EXAMINATION -INTENSITY -QUALITY -DESCRIPTION OF AROMAS

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DESCRIBING AROMAS BALSAMIC FLORAL HERBACEOUS FRUITY SPICY

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OIL SCENTS TANGERINE GRAPEFRUIT ACACIA ELDER APPLE ALMOND BANANA HAZELNUT CITRUS WALNUT ARTICHOKE AROMATIC HERBS GRASS BELL PEPPER TOMATO

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QUALITY Flavours depend from cultivar, country of origin, ripeness, freshness of the olive, method of extraction

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THE PLEASURE OF EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL IS DUE TO AROMAS

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TASTE SWEETNESS, SALTINESS ACIDITY, BITTERNESS, ASTRINGENCY, FLUIDITY, PUNGENCY, STRUCTURE

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TASTE OF OIL IMPORTANT LINGERING OF THE FLAVOURS

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BALANCE We have to verify the hardness and the softness Hardness : prickliness, bitter, astringency Softness : consistency, sweetness, density

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BALANCE Balance is important in pairing oil and food

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OLIVE OIL +

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BUTTER

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BUTTER GREASINESS, SWEET TENDENCY

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PAIRING?

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BUTTER EFFERVESCENCE SAPIDITY ACIDITY

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RISOTTO CRISPY, SPARKLING WINE

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SPARKLING AND SWEET WINE PANETTONE

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VINEGAR

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- WINE VINEGAR - BALSAMIC VINEGAR

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Vinegar INDUCED SUCCULENCE SENSATION +++

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VINEGAR (FROM WINE WHITE OR RED) INCREASES THE ACIDIC TENDENCY AND SUCCULENCE. VINEGAR IS NOT SIMPLE TO PAIR WITH WINE IF VERY PERCEPTIBLE

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BALSAMIC VINEGAR ALSO GIVES SWEET TENDENCY, AROMATICNESS, TASTE OLFACTORY INTENSITY AND LENGTH

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Balsamic Vinegar INDUCED SUCCULENCE SENSATION +++

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RED OR WHITE, THE WINE MUST BE SMOOTH AND FULL BODIED, WITH LONG LINGERING

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cooking on direct fire (reach 30% vol) Alcoholic and Acetic Fermentation Ageing for 12 years Fresh grape must 100 kg grapes Mainly Trebbiano/Lambrusco

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Different woods: chestnut, juniper, cherry, mulberry, oak

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ACETO BALSAMICO TRADIZIONALE DI REGGIO EMILIA

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AROMATIC HERBS

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AROMATICNESS BITTER TENDENCY SAPIDITY AROMATIC HERBS T.O.P SWEET TENDENCY

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GARLIC AROMATICNESS SAVOURY

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ONION AROMATICNESS SWEET TENDENCY

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PARSLEY AROMATICNESS BITTER TENDENCY

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SAGE AROMATICNESS BITTER TENDENCY

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BASIL AROMATICNESS BITTER TENDENCY

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THYME AROMATICNESS BITTER TENDENCY

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ROSEMARY AROMATICNESS BITTER TENDENCY

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CAPERS AROMATICNESS BITTER TENDENCY ACIDITY

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SPICES

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SPICINESS BITTER TENDENCY SAPIDITY SPICES SWEET TENDENCY T.O.P

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JUNIPER BERRIES BITTER TENDENCY

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CHILLI HOT, SPICY FLAVOUR

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NUTMEG SWEET TENDENCY BITTER TENDENCY

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CINNAMON SWEET TENDENCY

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SAFFRON SWEET TENDENCY

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PEPPER SAPIDITY, HOT, T.O.P.

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CLOVE SWEET TENDENCY

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CURRY HOT, T.O.P.

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