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Fever During and After Childbirth:

Fever During and After Childbirth Advances in Maternal and Neonatal Health

Session Objectives:

2 Fever During and After Childbirth Session Objectives Discuss best practices for management of infection during and after childbirth, especially: Amnionitis Metritis Describe strategies for prevention of infection Distinguish between prophylactic and therapeutic use of antibiotics

Providing Prophylactic Antibiotics:

3 Fever During and After Childbirth Providing Prophylactic Antibiotics Help prevent infection, which can result from certain procedures, including: Cesarean section Manual removal of placenta Correction of uterine inversion Repair of ruptured uterus Postpartum hysterectomy Prolonged rupture of membranes (Group B streptococcus) If infection is suspected or diagnosed, therapeutic antibiotics are more appropriate

Providing Prophylactic Antibiotics (continued):

4 Fever During and After Childbirth Providing Prophylactic Antibiotics (continued) Should be given 30 minutes before procedure, to allow adequate blood levels at time of procedure Except at cesarean, give antibiotics when cord is clamped after delivery of newborn One dose is enough (as effective as 3 doses or 24 hours of antibiotics) If procedure is longer than 6 hours or blood loss is 1500 mL or more, give second dose. Gyssens 1999; Polk and Christmas 2000.

Providing Prophylactic Antibiotics for Cesarean Section: Objective and Design:

5 Fever During and After Childbirth Providing Prophylactic Antibiotics for Cesarean Section: Objective and Design Objective: To determine which antibiotic regimen is most effective in reducing infectious morbidity in women undergoing cesarean section Methods: 51 randomized controlled trials Outcomes: Fever, wound infection, urinary tract infection, other serious infections, adverse reactions, cost, newborn outcomes Hopkins and Smaill 2000.

Providing Prophylactic Antibiotics for Cesarean Section: Results:

6 Fever During and After Childbirth Providing Prophylactic Antibiotics for Cesarean Section: Results Ampicillin and 1 st generation cephalosporin have similar efficacy in reducing postoperative endometritis No need for more broad spectrum agents or multiple doses Need randomized controlled trial to test optimal timing (pre-operative vs. at cord clamp) Hopkins and Smaill 2000.

Providing Therapeutic Antibiotics:

7 Fever During and After Childbirth Providing Therapeutic Antibiotics For general treatment of obstetrical infection or until diagnosis is made, give broad spectrum antibiotics Treat specific infection with specific antibiotics If response is poor after 48 hours: Ensure adequate doses of antibiotics are being given Re-evaluate woman for other infection or abscess Treat based on reported microbial sensitivity End point is when: Woman is fever-free for 48 hours Clinical examination shows woman is improving Woman completes course of antibiotics (in all cases except metritis)

Principles of Treatment with Antibiotics:

8 Fever During and After Childbirth Principles of Treatment with Antibiotics Adequate dosing Adequate duration Continued re-evaluation of the patient

Fever During Pregnancy and Labor: Differential Diagnosis:

9 Fever During and After Childbirth Fever During Pregnancy and Labor: Differential Diagnosis Cystitis Acute pyelonephritis Septic abortion Amnionitis Pneumonia Malaria Typhoid Hepatitis

Acute Pyelonephritis:

10 Fever During and After Childbirth Acute Pyelonephritis Treat, because of risks of: Preterm labor Sepsis Easy to treat Inexpensive

Management of Acute Pyelonephritis:

11 Fever During and After Childbirth Management of Acute Pyelonephritis If in shock or preterm labor, manage as indicated Check urine culture and sensitivity and give appropriate antibiotic If no culture available, give IV antibiotics until woman is fever-free for 48 hours: Ampicillin every 6 hours PLUS gentamicin daily Ensure adequate hydration by mouth or IV Give paracetamol by mouth for pain and to lower temperature

Acute Pyelonephritis: Subsequent Prophylaxis:

12 Fever During and After Childbirth Acute Pyelonephritis: Subsequent Prophylaxis Recurrence of acute pyelonephritis in the same gestation is reported to be 10–18% Suppressive therapy: 2.7% will get another urinary tract infection No suppressive therapy: 20–30% will get another urinary tract infection To prevent further infections, give antibiotics once daily at bedtime for remainder of pregnancy and 2 weeks postpartum: Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole Amoxicillin Sweet and Gibbs 1996; Duff 1996.

Septic Abortion:

13 Fever During and After Childbirth Septic Abortion Cause of 12.9% of maternal deaths Postabortion care has had tremendous impact on reducing mortality, particularly with use of manual vacuum aspiration

Management of Septic Abortion:

14 Fever During and After Childbirth Management of Septic Abortion Begin antibiotics as soon as possible before evacuation: Ampicillin every 6 hours PLUS gentamicin daily PLUS metronidazole every 8 hours Continue until fever-free for 48 hours Manual vacuum aspiration

Amnionitis: Antibiotics:

15 Fever During and After Childbirth Amnionitis: Antibiotics Prompt intrapartum initiation (rather than delay until after delivery) of broad spectrum antibiotics results in: Less newborn bacteremia Less newborn pneumonia Reduced maternal febrile morbidity Shorter duration of hospitalization Treatment initiated intrapartum will not mask newborn infection Gibbs RS et al 1988.

Amnionitis: Antibiotics (continued):

16 Fever During and After Childbirth Amnionitis: Antibiotics (continued) Ampicillin and gentamicin Broad coverage for wide variety of organisms Crosses placenta and achieves adequate concentrations in the fetus Excellent activity against group B streptococci and E. coli – major causes of newborn sepsis Anaerobic coverage is not necessary (unless cesarean section performed) Hauth et al 1985.

Management of Amnionitis:

17 Fever During and After Childbirth Management of Amnionitis Give combination of antibiotics until delivery: Ampicillin every 6 hours PLUS gentamicin daily If woman delivers vaginally, discontinue antibiotics postpartum If woman has cesarean section: Continue above antibiotics Add metronidazole every 8 hours Continue until fever-free for 48 hours ACOG 1998.

Management of Amnionitis (continued):

18 Fever During and After Childbirth Management of Amnionitis (continued) If cervix is favorable, induce labor with oxytocin If cervix is unfavorable, ripen with prostaglandins and infuse oxytocin or deliver by cesarean section

Aminoglycosides During Pregnancy: Objective and Design:

19 Fever During and After Childbirth Aminoglycosides During Pregnancy: Objective and Design Objective: To evaluate teratogenic potential of aminoglycosides Methods: Selected cases of congenital anomalies from Hungarian congenital anomaly registry from 1980–1996 Gleaned exposure data from antenatal care records, medical documents, questionnaire to mother Czeizel et al 2000.

Aminoglycosides During Pregnancy: Results:

20 Fever During and After Childbirth Aminoglycosides During Pregnancy: Results No detectable teratogenesis from parenteral gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin or oral neomycin Czeizel et al 2000.

Fever after Childbirth: Differential Diagnosis:

21 Fever During and After Childbirth Fever after Childbirth: Differential Diagnosis Metritis Pelvic abscess Peritonitis Breast engorgement Mastitis Breast abscess Wound abscess, wound seroma or wound hematoma Wound cellulitis Cystitis Acute pyelonephritis Deep vein thrombosis Pneumonia Atelectasis Uncomplicated malaria Severe/complicated malaria Typhoid Hepatitis

Obstetric and Medical Factors Affecting Postpartum Sepsis:

22 Fever During and After Childbirth Obstetric and Medical Factors Affecting Postpartum Sepsis Intervention during labor and delivery Dangerous infections following prolonged and obstructed labor Thrombophlebitis, pulmonary embolism, coagulopathy and septic shock may complicate the infection Remember that clostridium infections may be difficult to detect and occur where contamination with earth or cow dung is possible Kwast 1991.

Health Service Factors Affecting Postpartum Sepsis:

23 Fever During and After Childbirth Health Service Factors Affecting Postpartum Sepsis Majority of deaths occur between first and second week of puerperium and are linked to medical and midwifery/nursing staff factors: Inadequate: monitoring of temperature bacteriological investigations treatment with antibiotics or operative intervention Lack of: asepsis and antisepsis blood for transfusion appropriate drugs Kwast 1991.

Fever After Childbirth: General Management:

24 Fever During and After Childbirth Fever After Childbirth: General Management Encourage bedrest Ensure adequate hydration by mouth or IV Decrease temperature with fan or tepid sponging If shock suspected, begin treatment immediately

Management of Metritis:

25 Fever During and After Childbirth Management of Metritis Start antibiotics: Ampicillin every 6 hours Gentamicin every 24 hours Metronidazole every 8 hours Assess if retained placental fragments All the while: Give fluids Transfuse blood as needed Give pain medication Continue close monitoring Watch for shock Watch for development of abscess

Antibiotics for Metritis:

26 Fever During and After Childbirth Antibiotics for Metritis IV antibiotics: Ampicillin every 6 hours Gentamicin every 24 hours Metronidazole every 8 hours Continue until fever-free for 48 hours No oral antibiotics after treatment: Not proven to add any benefit Only add to expense

Managing Metritis: Objective and Design:

27 Fever During and After Childbirth Managing Metritis: Objective and Design Objective: To assess the effects of different regimens and their complications in the treatment of endometritis. Methods: 41 randomized controlled trials Outcomes: duration of fever, treatment failure, other complication (infectious), drug reaction, costs French and Smaill 2000.

Managing Metritis: Results:

28 Fever During and After Childbirth Managing Metritis: Results More treatment failure with regimens other than clindamycin and an aminoglycoside RR 1.37 (1.10–1.70) Three studies looked at once-daily gentamicin vs. three-times daily: no difference in failure rates, but a trend toward fewer failures with once-daily dosing RR 0.60 (0.30–1.20) No difference in nephrotoxicity, lower cost French and Smaill 2000.

Septic Shock:

29 Fever During and After Childbirth Septic Shock IV antibiotics for sick patients Antibiotics for Gram + (penicillin, ampicillin) Gram - (gentamicin), and Anaerobes (metronidazole) Adequate doses of antibiotics are necessary Aggressive fluid resuscitation (2–3 liters to start) Look for abscess, peritonitis or other condition requiring surgery IV antibiotics may be necessary for longer if bacteremia

Prevention Strategies:

30 Fever During and After Childbirth Prevention Strategies Infection prevention practices for every delivery: Minimum manipulation High-level disinfected or sterile gloves for examination Avoid unnecessary procedures (e.g., episiotomy) Three Cleans: Clean hands Clean surface Clean blade Plus: Clean tie Clean perineum Clean nails

Summary:

31 Fever During and After Childbirth Summary Many causes of fever during and after childbirth Therapeutic antibiotics ONLY if disease is diagnosed Duration or treatment dependent on disease, whether or not cesarean section has occurred or presence of bacteremia

References:

32 Fever During and After Childbirth References American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Educational Bulletin: Antimicrobial Therapy for Obstetric Patients, March 1998 . p. 292-300. Czeizel AE et al. 2000. A teratological study of aminoglycoside antibiotic therapy during pregnancy. Scand J Infect Dis 32: 309–313. Duff P. 1996. Maternal and Perinatal Infections, in Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancy , 3rd ed. Gabbe SG, JR Niebyl and OL Simpson (eds). Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh, Scotland. French LM and FM Smaill. 2000. Antibiotic regimens for endometritis after delivery (Cochrane Review), in The Cochrane Library . Issue 4. Update Software: Oxford. Gibbs RS et al. 1988. A randomized trial of intrapartum versus immediate postpartum treatment of women with intra-amniotic infection. Obstet Gynecol 72(6): 823–828.

References (continued):

33 Fever During and After Childbirth References (continued) Gyssens IC. 1999. Preventing postoperative infections: Current treatment recommendations. Drugs 57(2): 175–185. Hauth JC et al. 1985. Term maternal and neonatal complications of acute chorioamnionitis. Obstet Gynecol 66(1): 59–62. Hopkins L and F Smaill. 2000. Antibiotic prophylaxis regimens and drugs for cesarean section (Cochrane Review), in The Cochrane Library. Update Software: Oxford. Kwast B. 1991. Puerperal sepsis: Its contribution to maternal mortality. Midwifery 7(3): 102–106. Polk Jr. HC and AB Christmas. 2000. Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery and surgical wound infections. Am Surg 66: 105–111. Sweet RL and RS Gibbs. 1998. Infectious Diseases of the Female Genital Tract, 3rd ed. Williams & Wilkins: Baltimore, Maryland.

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