Tyler Garrison - SS 2201 - Online

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Tyler Garrison SS 2201 – Online Professor Effie Jones May 21, 2013 Ireland

Ireland's Facts:

Capital City Ireland's Facts

Ireland's Facts:

Official Language – English Religion – Catholicism National Holiday – St. Patrick’s Day Population – 4.528 million Area – 84, 431 square kilometers/32,599 square miles Nationality – Irish Ireland's Facts

Ireland's Facts:

Ireland's Facts National Flower – Ireland does not have a national flower, but the Shamrock is the trademark. National Bird - Lapwing


Ireland is a republic, with a system of parliamentary democracy. Under the Constitution, legislative power is vested in the Parliament (Oireachtas). This consists of a President (HE Michael D. Higgins), who is head of state; the Lower House (Dail); and the upper house (Seanad or Senate). The President and Senate have limited functions and powers. The Dail, consisting of 166 seats, is the primary legislative body, and it selects the Government. It is directly elected at least once every five years by a system of proportional representation. The Senate, which has 60 members, is elected through a system of electoral colleges and its periods of office correspond with those of the Dail. In Ireland, the Prime Minister is known as the Taoiseach (pronounced 'Tee-shock'). The next Presidential elections will be held in 2018. Parliamentary elections were held in February 2011. Politics


In the 15 years to 2007 Ireland's GDP growth per capita was the fastest in the OECD. However, Ireland's economy quickly declined in 2008, with output contracting by about 10 per cent over 2008-09. Ireland's economy contracted by 0.4 per cent in 2010, however grew marginally by 0.4 per cent in 2011.Spending cuts and tax increases will need to be expanded for Ireland to reach its target of reducing fiscal deficit of 3 per cent of GDP by 2015. The Central Statistics Office Ireland reported unemployment of 14.2 per cent in 2011. This is an increase of 0.5 per cent from 2010. In November 2010 the former Government reached agreement with the EU and IMF on a financial stabilization package amounting to €85 billion. The EU contributed €45 billion, the IMF €22.5 billion and the Irish Government €17.5 billion. The agreement required robust action to reduce the large budget deficit including the implementation of austerity measures and financial and structural reforms. In Ireland's 2011 Budget, the Government implemented spending cuts and tax increases to address its budget deficit. Economics


Ireland was Australia's 29th largest merchandise trading partner in 2010-11. Total merchandise exports to Ireland were valued at A$123 million and total merchandise imports were valued at A$2.177 billion over the same period. Major Australian exports include wine, medicaments (including veterinary), and electrical machinery and parts. Major imports from Ireland include medicaments (including veterinary), food items, and orthopaedic appliances. Australia's services export trade to Ireland in 2010-11 was valued at A$414 million and our services import trade from Ireland in the same period was valued at A$883 million. Recreational travel remains the largest component of Australian service exports to Ireland. Intellectual property charges were a significant component of services imports in 2010-11. Australia has significant investment links with Ireland. The latest Australian Bureau of Statistics figures show that in 2010 Ireland's investment in Australia was valued at A$3.0 billion. Of this, A$412 was foreign direct investment. Australia's investment in Ireland was valued at A$4.1 billion, of which A$633 million was foreign direct investment. Harvey Norman continues to have the largest Australian retail presence in Ireland. Former Irish Prime Minister, Brian Cowen, launched Macquarie Capital Europe's Dublin Branch, which is performing well, in September 2008. A number of Australian wine brands such as Wirra Wirra have established themselves in the Irish market. Trade

Ireland's Education System:

There are three levels of education within Ireland’s school system. - Primary (First-Level) Education - Second-Level Education - Third-Level Education Ireland's Education System

Primary (First-Level) Education:

Children do not have to attend school until the age of six but it is usual for children to begin school the September following their fourth birthday. Four-year-olds and five-year-olds are enrolled in the junior or senior infant classes. The curriculum for primary education covers the following key areas: - Language - Mathematics - Social, Environment and Scientific education - Arts education including visual arts music and drama - Physical integration, social personal and health education. Primary schools are generally privately owned by religious communities or boards of governors, but are State-funded. Primary (First-Level) Education

Second-Level Education:

Second-level education is provided by different types of post-primary schools. That is, secondary, vocational, community and comprehensive schools. Secondary schools are privately owned and managed. In most cases the trustees are religious communities or boards of governors. Vocational schools are established by the State and administered by vocational education committees. Community and comprehensive schools are managed by boards of management of differing compositions. Second-level education consists of a three-year junior cycle followed by a two-year or three-year senior cycle depending on whether an optional Transition Year is taken following the Junior Certificate examination. Students generally commence the junior cycle at the age of 12. The Junior Certificate is taken after three years. Transition Year follows the Junior Certificate examination. This year is free from formal examinations and allows students to experience a wide range of educational inputs, including work experience. During their final two years in the senior cycle, students take one of three programmes, each leading to a State examination - the established Leaving Certificate, the Leaving Certificate Vocational Programme or the Leaving Certificate Applied. The established Leaving Certificate is the main basis upon which places in universities, institutes of technology and colleges of education are allocated. The Leaving Certificate Vocational Programme differs from the established Leaving Certificate in placing a concentration on technical subjects and including additional modules which have a vocational focus. The Leaving Certificate Applied Programme has as its primary objective the preparation of participants for adult and working life through relevant learning experiences. These aim to develop the following areas of human endeavor: spiritual, intellectual, social, emotional, aesthetic and physical. The Leaving Certificate Applied is not recognized for direct entry to third-level courses but it can enable students to take Post-Leaving Certificate courses. Second-Level Education

Third-Level Education:

Third-level education is made up of a number of sectors. The university sector, the technological sector and the colleges of education are substantially funded by the State. In addition there are a number of independent private colleges. There are seven universities, which are autonomous and self-governing. They offer degree programmes at bachelor, masters and doctorate level. The technological sector includes institutes of technology which provide programmes of education and training in areas such as business, science, engineering, linguistics and music to certificate, diploma and degree levels. The Department of Education and Skills has overall responsibility for the sector. The colleges of education specialize in training for first-level teachers. They offer a three-year bachelor of education degree and a postgraduate diploma. The training of second-level teachers usually involves completing a primary degree in university or other third-level institution followed by a one-year higher diploma in education. In addition, there are colleges of education that specialize in the training of second-level home economics teachers, teachers of religion and physical education. Third-Level Education




Hurling Football Rugby Soccer Golf Sports


Horse Racing Show-jumping Camogie Boxing Greyhound Racing Sports


The potato - Introduced into Ireland in the late 1500s, the potato quickly became one of the main staples of the Irish diet. In the mid 1840s much of the country's potato crop was destroyed by disease, causing widespread famine. Over a million people died as a result and it triggered emigration on a massive scale. - Today, potatoes continue to play a significant role in Irish cuisine and they are served in many different forms, for example: 1. Colcannon - a mixture of mashed potatoes, kale or cabbage, and seasonings 2. Champ - a mixture of mashed potatoes and spring onions 3. Potato scones - similar to biscuits or muffins Food


Bread - Bread is an important part of Irish culture. Soda bread, a crusty brown bread made from baking soda instead of yeast, whole-wheat flour and buttermilk, is a national dish of Ireland. Many other types of bread and cakes can also be found in Irish bakeries. Cheese - Until recently the Gaelic tradition of cheese-making in Ireland had all but died out. A revival of farmhouse cheese-making began in the 1970s and has developed considerably since then. Irish farmhouse cheeses are individual and unique to each producer, with each type of cheese being produced on only one farm. Each cheese, therefore, has its own distinct character. Ireland makes about fifty types of homemade farmhouse cheeses, considered delicacies. Food


Meat and seafood - Meat is eaten frequently at Irish meals. The most common meats are beef, lamb and pork. Irish reared lamb is used in many recipes from roast leg of lamb to Irish stew. Beef is the traditional Sunday roast. - Since Ireland is surrounded by water, seafood such as salmon and cod is common in Irish cooking. Trout, scallops, lobster, mussels, and oysters are also caught and prepared locally. Prawns are popular in Dublin, and Galway is home to an annual oyster festival. Soups and stews - Since early times in Ireland, broths, soups and stews have been a mainstay of the Irish diet. Common ingredients in Irish soups are potatoes, seafood and a variety of meats. - Irish stew has been recognized as the national dish for at least two centuries and is usually made with lamb or mutton and vegetables. Food


Irish dancing is the form of dance that developed in Ireland. It is known for the fact that dancers keep their upper bodies still and straight and their arms at their sides, while the feet perform very intricate steps and leaps. Dance


Some places to visit while in Ireland would Dublin, the capital city, which has many museums and other historical places. Another place would be Cork. It has many restaurants and pubs to dine in at, along with many sightseeing places to marvel at. Any place that you visit while in Ireland will have many museums, shopping attractions, restaurants, pubs, cathedrals with very detail architecture, and the people are very friendly and welcoming of visitors. Tourism


http://www.dfat.gov.au/geo/ireland/ireland_country_brief.html http://www.citizensinformation.ie/en/education/the_irish_education_system/overview_of_the_irish_education_system.html http://ireland.angloinfo.com/lifestyle/food-and-drink/staple-foods/ http://www.tripadvisor.in/Attractions-g186591-Activities-Ireland.html Bibliography

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