CROP PRODUCTION

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CROP PRODUCTION:

CROP PRODUCTION

AGRICULTURE:

ALL LIVING ORGANISMS NEED FOOD TO SURVIVE.THE BRANCH OF SCIENCE THAT DEALS WITH GROWING PLANTS AND RAISING LIVESTOCK FOR HUMAN USE IS CALLED AGRICULTURE. AGRICULTURE

Rabi season crop:

Rabi season crop These are grown in winter season, generally in October/November and harvested by March/April. Therefore, they are called Winter season crop. For example- wheat, gram pea and mustard.

Kharif crop:

These are grown in the beginning of rainy season in June/July and harvested by September/October. Therefore, are also called summer season crop . For example- rice, maize, groundnut ,cotton and soya been. Kharif crop

Basic practices of Crop Production:

Basic practices of Crop Production

Preparation of soil:

Ploughing:- The first step in the preparation of soil requires loosening and turning of the soil. The process of loosening and turning of the soil is called ploughing or tilling . This has the following advantages . Preparation of soil

Advantages:

Lo0se soil contains a lot of air spaces in it. This allows roots to breathe easily. Loose soils allows the roots penetrate deep into the soil. Thus, the plant is fixed to the soil firmly. Ploughing uproots the undesirable plants (weeds) and kills them. Loose soil mixes uniformly with manures and fertilizers. Loose soils helps in the growth of earthworm and microbes present there. Earthworms helps to turn and loosen the soil. Earthworms and microbes helps in adding humus (dead organic matter) to the soil. These organisms are, therefore, the friends of farmer. Advantages

Ploughing by different ways:

P loughing by different ways Iron and wooden plough Plough by bulls and tractor

Agricultural Implements:

A gricultural Implements leveller Hoe

Sowing of seeds:

Once the soil is prepared, seeds are sown in it. The process of putting the seeds in the soil is called sowing. Most of the crops like wheat, bajra, jowar, oats and mustard are grown by sowing seeds .selection of good quality and healthy seed is very important before sowing them. S owing of seeds

Points to be kept in mind while sowing seed:

Seed should be of good quality and healthy. They should be sown at correct depth in the soil. The correct depth varies from crops to crops. If sown deep in the soil, roots will not be able to respire. If sown on the surface, birds may damage the seeds. Seed should sown at proper distance from each other to prevent overcrowding of plants. This allows plants to get enough water, nutrients and sunlight. Seeds not sown directly in the soil. P oints to be kept in mind while sowing seed

Transplanting:

T ransferring of seedling from a nursery to a field is called transplanting. Like in case of rice and many vegetables such as tomato, onion and brinjal, seeds are sown in a small area called a nursery and then transfer to field. Transplanting

Methods of sowing of seeds:

By scattering the seeds in the field by hand (manual sowin g ): This method is called Broadcasting. This is used in case of wheat. Seeds sown by this method are unevenly distributed in the field. By using seed drills : seeds can also be sown by using a simple implement called a seed drill. seeds sown with a seed drill are: (i)evenly distributed with proper distance, and (ii) reach the right depth. A seed drill consists of 5-6 long vertical pipes with a funnel at the top. The drill is attached to a plough. It may be driven by bullocks or by a tractor. Methods of sowing of seeds

Application of Manure and Fertilizers:

Manure A Natural substance obtained by the decomposition of plants and animals(leaves, straws, cattle dung, urineZ0). Prepared in the fields. Provide a lot of humus to the soil. No pollution is caused. A chemical substance. Prepared in factories. Does not contain any humus. Cause water pollution . Application of Manure and Fertilizers Fertilizers

Irrigation:

Irrigation means supplying water to the crops in the fields at specific intervals. Water is important for crops as: Germination of seeds does not take place without water. Roots fail to develop and elongate in dry soil. It protects plants from frost and hot air currents. Irrigation

Traditional method of irrigation:

Traditional method of irrigation Moat Dhekli RAHAT CHAIN PUMP

Modern methods of irrigation:

Perpendicular pipes with rotating nozzels on the top joined the main pipeline, waters enter the prepenedicular pipes and escapes from the rotating nozzle, which sprinkles water on the crop. This system is useful on uneven land and in sandy soil, where efficient water is not available. In this method water falls drop by drop at the position of the roots. It is an economical method, as water not wasted at all. Sprinkler System Modern methods of irrigation Drip System

Weeds:

Weeds are unwanted and uncultivated plants that grow along with the crop plants. Some examples of common weeds are : amaranthus(chaulai),chenopodium(bathua)and wild oat (javi). Weeds reduce crop yield, as they compete with the crops for water , minerals and sunlight. So ,it is necessary to remove them from the fields from time to time. The removal of weeds from a field called weeding. Weeds

Weed remover:

Weed remover khurpi Harrow

Harvesting:

The process of cutting and gathering of crops is called harvesting. For example, for Rabi crops (like wheat)harvesting is done March/April. In case of paddy (a Kharif crop), harvesting is done in September/October. In harvesting ,crops are cut close to the ground. In India, it is done either:- Manually with a sickle, or By a machine called harvester which is attached to a tractor. Harvesting

Winnowing:

Winnowing The process of separating grains from the chaff with the help of wind is called winnowing .In this process ,the threshed crop is dropped on the ground from a height. The grains or seeds, being heavier, fall almost straight down. The chaff, being lighter, is blown away by the wind.

Storage:

Storage

THANK YOU:

THANK YOU MADE BY Pushkar Chauhan VIII