Meteorology Today 11th Edition

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Grounded in the scientific method, this reader-friendly and highly visual book shows you how to observe, calculate, and synthesize information as a budding scientist, systematically analyzing meteorological concepts and issues. Specific discussions center on severe weather systems, such as tornadoes, thunderstorms, and hurricanes, as well as everyday elements, such as wind, precipitation, condensation, masses and fronts, and the seasons. Events and issues dominating today's news cycles also receive thorough attention, and include analysis of Superstorm Sandy, the Oklahoma tornadoes, recent findings from the US National Climate Assessment and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and more. Whether you choose a bound book or eBook, METEOROLOGY TODAY, 11th Edition is a dynamic learning experience packed with end-of-chapter summaries, key terms, review questions, exercises and problems, live animations, web links, and more to carry your learning to atmospheric heights!

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Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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5 REASONS to buy your textbooks and course materials at SAVINGS: Prices up to 75 off daily coupons and free shipping on orders over 25 CHOICE: Multiple format options including textbook eBook and eChapter rentals CONVENIENCE: Anytime anywhere access of eBooks or eChapters via mobile devices SERVICE: Free eBook access while your text ships and instant access to online homework products STUDY TOOLS: Study tools for your text plus writing research career and job search resources availability varies 1 2 3 4 5 Find your course materials and start saving at: www.cengagebrain.com Engaged with you. www.cengage.com Source Code: 14M-AA0107 Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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Meteorology t oday eleVeNt H edItIoN Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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. eleVeNt H edItIoN C. donald ahrens emeritus Modesto Junior College r obert Henson University Corporation for atmospheric r esearch Meteorology today aN INtrodUCtIo N to Weat Her C l IMate aNd tHe e NVIroNMeNt Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For valuable information on pricing previous editions changes to current editions and alternate formats please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN author title or keyword for materials in your areas of interest. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the eBook version. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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© 2016 2013 Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced transmitted stored or used in any form or by any means graphic electronic or mechanical including but not limited to photocopying recording scanning digitizing taping Web distribution information networks or information storage and retrieval systems except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the prior written permission of the publisher. Library of Congress Control Number 2014952597 Student Edition: ISBN-13: 978-1-305-11358-9 ISBN-10: 1-305-11358-6 Loose-leaf Edition: ISBN-13: 978-1-305-26500-4 ISBN-10: 1-305-26500-9 Cengage Learning 20 Channel Center Street Boston MA 02210 USA Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with office locations around the globe including Singapore the United Kingdom Australia Mexico Brazil and Japan. Locate your local office at www.cengage.com/global. Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education Ltd. To learn more about Cengage Learning Solutions visit www.cengage.com. Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store www.cengagebrain.com. Meteorology Today: An Introduction to Weather Climate and the Environment Eleventh Edition C. Donald Ahrens Robert Henson Product Director: Mary Finch Senior Product Manager: Aileen Berg Senior Content Developer: Jake Warde Associate Content Developers: Casey Lozier Kellie Petruzzelli Product Assistant: Victor Luu Media Developer: Stefanie Chase Market Development Manager: Julie Schuster Content Project Manager: Hal Humphrey Senior Art Director: Pamela Galbreath Manufacturing Planner: Rebecca Cross Production Service: Janet Bollow Associates Photo Researcher: Veerabaghu Nagarajan PreMedia Global Text Researcher: Kavitha Balasundaram PreMedia Global Copy Editor: Stuart Kenter Illustrator: Charles Preppernau Text Designer: Janet Bollow Associates Cover Designer: Irene Morris Cover Image: © extremeinstability.com Compositor: Graphic World Inc. Printed in Canada Print Number: 01 Print Year: 2014 For product information and technology assistance contact us at Cengage Learning Customer Sales Support 1-800-354-9706. For permission to use material from this text or product submit all requests online at www.cengage.com/permissions. Further permissions questions can be e-mailed to permissionrequestcengage.com. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. WCN: 02-200-203

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CHaP ter 1 Earth and Its Atmosphere 3 CHaP ter 2 Energy: Warming Earth and the Atmosphere 31 CHaP ter 3 Seasonal and Daily Temperatures 59 CHaP ter 4 Atmospheric Humidity 93 CHaP ter 5 Condensation: Dew Fog and Clouds 115 CHaP ter 6 Stability and Cloud Development 145 CHaP ter 7 Precipitation 169 CHaP ter 8 Air Pressure and Winds 199 CHaP ter 9 Wind: Small-Scale and Local Systems 229 CHaP ter 10 Wind: Global Systems 265 CHaP ter 11 Air Masses and Fronts 295 CHaP ter 12 Middle-Latitude Cyclones 321 CHaP ter 13 Weather Forecasting 347 CHaP ter 14 Thunderstorms 383 CHaP ter 15 Tornadoes 415 CHaP ter 16 Hurricanes 439 CHaP ter 17 Global Climate 471 CHaP ter 18 Earth’s Changing Climate 501 CHaP ter 19 Air Pollution 535 CHaP ter 20 Light Color and Atmospheric Optics 565 V CoNteNt S IN BrIeF Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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Heat Transfer in the Atmosphere 36 Conduction 36 Convection 37 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 2.2 Rising Air Cools and Sinking Air Warms 38 Radiant Energy 39 Radiation and Temperature 40 Radiation of the Sun and Earth 40 Radiation—Absorption Emission and Equilibrium 41 FOCUS ON AN ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE 2.3 Wave Energy Sun Burning and UV Rays 42 Selective Absorbers and the Atmospheric Greenhouse Efect 43 Enhancement of the Greenhouse Efect 46 Warming the Air from Below 47 Shortwave Radiation Streaming from the Sun 47 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 2.4 Blue Skies Red Suns and White Clouds 48 Earth’s Annual Energy Balance 49 Solar Particles the Aurora and Space Weather 51 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 2.5 Characteristics of the Sun 52 Solar Storms and Space Weather 54 Summary 55 Key Terms 55 Questions for Review 55 Questions for Tought 56 Problems and Exercises 56 Preface xi CHaP ter 1 Earth and Its Atmosphere 3 Te Atmosphere and the Scientifc Method 4 Overview of Earth’s Atmosphere 4 Te Early Atmosphere 5 Composition of Today’s Atmosphere 6 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 1.1 A Breath of Fresh Air 7 Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere 10 A Brief Look at Air Pressure and Air Density 11 Layers of the Atmosphere 12 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 1.2 The Atmospheres of Other Planets 14 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 1.3 The Radiosonde 15 Te Ionosphere 16 Weather and Climate 17 Meteorology—A Brief History 17 A Satellite’s View of the Weather 18 Weather and Climate in Our Lives 22 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 1.4 What is a Meteorologist 26 Summary 27 Key Terms 27 Questions for Review 27 Questions for Tought 28 Problems and Exercises 28 CHaP ter 2 Energy: Warming Earth and the Atmosphere 31 Energy Temperature and Heat 32 Temperature Scales 33 Specifc Heat 34 Latent Heat—Te Hidden Warmth 34 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 2.1 The Fate of a Sunbeam 36 CoNteNtS © C. Donald Ahrens CoNteNtS vii Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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CHaP ter 3 Seasonal and Daily Temperatures 59 Why Earth Has Seasons 60 Seasons in the Northern Hemisphere 60 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 3.1 Is December 21 Really the First Day of Winter 64 Seasons in the Southern Hemisphere 66 Local Seasonal Variations 66 FOCUS ON AN ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE 3.2 Solar Heating and the Noonday Sun 67 Daily Warming and Cooling Air Near the Surface 68 Daytime Warming 68 Extreme High Temperatures 69 Nighttime Cooling 70 Record Low Temperatures 73 Daily Temperature Variations 75 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 3.3 When It Comes to Temperature What’s Normal 77 Applications of Air Temperature 80 Air Temperature and Human Comfort 82 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 3.4 A Thousand Degrees and Freezing to Death 83 Measuring Air Temperature 84 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 3.5 Why Thermometers Should Be Read in the Shade 86 Summary 88 Key Terms 88 Questions for Review 88 Questions for Tought 89 Problems and Exercises 90 CHaP ter 4 Atmospheric Humidity 93 Circulation of Water in the Atmosphere 94 Te Many Phases of Water 95 Evaporation Condensation and Saturation 95 Humidity 97 Absolute Humidity 97 Specifc Humidity and Mixing Ratio 97 Vapor Pressure 98 Relative Humidity 99 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 4.1 Vapor Pressure and Boiling—The Higher You Go the Longer Cooking Takes 100 Relative Humidity and Dew Point 101 Comparing Humidities 104 Relative Humidity in the Home 105 Relative Humidity and Human Discomfort 106 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 4.2 Computing Relative Humidity and Dew Point 107 Measuring Humidity 109 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 4.3 Which Is “Heavier”—Humid Air or Dry Air 110 Summary 111 Key Terms 111 Questions for Review 111 Questions for Tought 112 Problems and Exercises 112 CHaP ter 5 Condensation: Dew Fog and Clouds 115 Te Formation of Dew and Frost 116 Condensation Nuclei 117 Haze 117 Fog 118 Radiation Fog 119 Advection Fog 120 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 5.1 Why Are Headlands Usually Foggier Than Beaches 121 Upslope Fog 122 Evaporation Mixing Fog 122 Foggy Weather 123 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 5.2 Fog That Forms by Mixing 124 © Robert Henson viii CONTENTS Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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FOCUS ON AN ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE 5.3 Fog Dispersal 126 Clouds 127 Classifcation of Clouds 127 Cloud Identifcation 127 Some Unusual Clouds 132 Cloud Observations 135 Satellite Observations 135 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 5.4 Measuring Cloud Ceilings 137 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 5.5 Satellites Do More Than Observe Clouds 141 Summary 142 Key Terms 142 Questions for Review 142 Questions for Tought 143 Problems and Exercises 143 CHaP ter 6 Stability and Cloud Development 145 Atmospheric Stability 146 Determining Stability 147 A Stable Atmosphere 147 An Unstable Atmosphere 149 A Conditionally Unstable Atmosphere 151 Causes of Instability 151 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 6.1 Subsidence Inversions—Put a Lid on It 152 Cloud Development 154 Convection and Clouds 154 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 6.2 Atmospheric Stability and Windy Afternoons — Hold On to Your Hat 155 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 6.3 Determining Convective Cloud Bases 159 Topography and Clouds 159 Clouds Tat Form Downwind of Mountains 161 FOCUS ON AN ADVANCED TOPIC 6.4 Adiabatic Charts 162 Changing Cloud Forms 162 Summary 166 Key Terms 166 Questions for Review 166 Questions for Tought 166 Problems and Exercises 167 CHaP ter 7 Precipitation 169 Precipitation Processes 170 How Do Cloud Droplets Grow Larger 170 Collision and Coalescence Process 171 Ice-Crystal Bergeron Process 173 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 7.1 The Freezing of Tiny Cloud Droplets 174 Cloud Seeding and Precipitation 176 Precipitation in Clouds 178 FOCUS ON AN ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE 7.2 Does Cloud Seeding Enhance Precipitation 178 Precipitation Types 179 Rain 179 Snow 180 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 7.3 Are Raindrops Tear-Shaped 181 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 7.4 Snowing When the Air Temperature Is Well Above Freezing 182 © Robert Henson CoNteNtS ix Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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x CONTENTS Sleet and Freezing Rain 185 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 7.5 Sounds and Snowfalls 185 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 7.6 Aircraft Icing 187 Snow Grains and Snow Pellets 188 Hail 188 Measuring Precipitation 191 Instruments 191 Doppler Radar and Precipitation 192 Measuring Precipitation from Space 193 Summary 195 Key Terms 195 Questions for Review 195 Questions for Tought 196 Problems and Exercises 196 CHaP ter 8 Air Pressure and Winds 199 Atmospheric Pressure 200 Horizontal Pressure Variations—A Tale of Two Cities 200 Daily Pressure Variations 201 Pressure Measurements 202 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 8.1 The Atmosphere Obeys the Gas Law 204 Pressure Readings 205 Surface and Upper-Level Charts 206 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 8.2 Flying on a Constant Pressure Surface—High to Low Look Out Below 209 Newton’s Laws of Motion 210 Forces Tat Infuence the Winds 211 Pressure Gradient Force 211 Coriolis Force 211 Straight-Line Flow Alof—Geostrophic Winds 214 FOCUS ON AN ADVANCED TOPIC 8.3 A Mathematical Look at the Geostrophic Wind 216 Curved Winds Around Lows and Highs Alof— Gradient Winds 216 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 8.4 Estimating Wind Direction and Pressure Patterns Aloft by Watching Clouds 218 Winds on Upper-Level Charts 218 Surface Winds 220 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 8.5 Winds Aloft in the Southern Hemisphere 220 Winds and Vertical Air Motions 222 FOCUS ON AN ADVANCED TOPIC 8.6 The Hydrostatic Equation 224 Summary 225 Key Terms 225 Questions for Review 225 Questions for Tought 226 Problems and Exercises 226 CHaP ter 9 Wind: Small-Scale and Local Systems 229 Scales of Motion 230 Small-Scale Winds Interacting with the Environment 231 Friction and Turbulence in the Boundary Layer 231 Eddies—Big and Small 233 Te Strong Force of the Wind 234 Wind and Soil 234 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 9.1 Eddies and “ Air Pockets” 235 Wind and Snow 236 Wind and Vegetation 237 Wind and Water 238 © Robert Henson Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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Local Wind Systems 239 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 9.2 Pedaling into the Wind 240 Termal Circulations 240 Sea and Land Breezes 241 Mountain and Valley Breezes 243 Katabatic Winds 244 Chinook Foehn Winds 245 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 9.3 Snow Eaters and Rapid Temperature Changes 246 Santa Ana Winds 246 Desert Winds 249 Seasonally Changing Winds—Te Monsoon 251 Determining Wind Direction and Speed 254 Te Infuence of Prevailing Winds 255 Wind Measurements 257 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 9.4 Wind Energy 257 Summary 260 Key Terms 260 Questions for Review 260 Questions for Tought 261 Problems and Exercises 262 CHaP ter 10 Wind: Global Systems 265 General Circulation of the Atmosphere 266 Single-Cell Model 266 Tree-Cell Model 267 Average Surface Winds and Pressure: Te Real World 269 Te General Circulation and Precipitation Patterns 271 Average Wind Flow and Pressure Patterns Alof 272 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 10.1 The “Dishpan” Experiment 274 Jet Streams 274 Te Formation of Jet Streams 276 Other Jet Streams 277 Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions 278 Global Wind Patterns and Surface Ocean Currents 278 Upwelling 280 El Niño La Niña and the Southern Oscillation 281 Pacifc Decadal Oscillation 286 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 10.2 The Challenge of Predicting El Niño and La Niña 287 North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation 289 Summary 291 Key Terms 291 Questions for Review 291 Questions for Tought 292 Problems and Exercises 292 CHaP ter 11 Air Masses and Fronts 295 Air Masses 296 Source Regions 296 Classifcation 296 Air Masses of North America 297 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 11.1 Lake-Effect Enhanced Snows 299 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 11.2 The Return of the Siberian Express 302 Fronts 306 Stationary Fronts 307 Cold Fronts 307 Warm Fronts 311 Drylines 313 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 11.3 The Wavy Warm Front 314 © Robert Henson CoNteNtS xi Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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xii CHaPter 14 Occluded Fronts 315 Upper-Air Fronts 316 Summary 318 Key Terms 318 Questions for Review 318 Questions for Tought 319 Problems and Exercises 319 CHaP ter 12 Middle-Latitude Cyclones 321 Polar Front Teory 322 Where Do Mid-Latitude Cyclones Tend to Form 325 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 12.1 Nor’easters 326 Vertical Structure of Deep Dynamic Lows 326 Te Roles of Converging and Diverging Air 327 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 12.2 A Closer Look at Convergence and Divergence 328 Upper-Level Waves and Mid-Latitude Cyclones 329 Te Necessary Ingredients for a Developing Mid-Latitude Cyclone 330 Upper-Air Support 330 Te Role of the Jet Stream 331 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 12.3 Jet Streaks and Storms 332 Conveyor Belt Model of Mid-Latitude Cyclones 333 A Developing Mid-Latitude Cyclone—Te March Storm of 1993 334 Vorticity Divergence and Developing Mid-Latitude Cyclones 337 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 12.4 Vorticity and Longwaves 339 Vorticity Advection and Shortwaves 340 Putting It All Together—A Monstrous Snowstorm 341 Polar Lows 342 Summary 343 Key Terms 343 Questions for Review 343 Questions for Tought 344 Problems and Exercises 344 CHaP ter 13 Weather Forecasting 347 Weather Observations 348 Surface and Upper-Air Data 348 Satellite Products 348 Doppler Radar 348 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 13.1 The Forecast Funnel 349 Acquisition of Weather Information 350 Weather Forecasting Tools 350 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 13.2 The Forecast in Words and Pictures 351 Forecast Production 352 Time Range of Forecasts 353 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 13.3 The Thickness Chart—A Forecasting Tool 354 Forecasting Techniques 355 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 13.4 TV Weathercasters—How Do They Do It 356 Te Computer and Weather Forecasting: Numerical Weather Prediction 358 Why Forecasts Go Awry and Steps to Improve Tem 360 Accuracy and Skill in Forecasting 363 FOCUS ON SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS 13.5 Weather Prediction and the Marketplace 364 Predicting the Weather from Local Signs 366 NASA xii CONTENTS Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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eNergy: WarMINg tHe eartH aNd tHe atMoSPHere xiii Weather Forecasting Using Surface Charts 366 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 13.6 Forecasting Temperature Advection by Watching the Clouds 368 Determining the Movement of Weather Systems 369 A Forecast for Six Cities 370 A Meteorologist Makes a Prediction 373 Help from the 500-mb Chart 374 Te Models Provide Assistance 375 A Valid Forecast 376 Satellite and Upper-Air Assistance 376 A Day of Rain and Wind 377 Summary 379 Key Terms 379 Questions for Review 379 Questions for Tought 380 Problems and Exercises 380 CHaP ter 14 Thunderstorms 383 Tunderstorm Types 384 Ordinary Cell Tunderstorms 385 Multicell Tunderstorms 387 Supercell Tunderstorms 394 Tunderstorms and the Dryline 398 Tunderstorms and Flooding 399 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 14.1 The Terrifying Flash Flood in the Big Thompson Canyon 400 Distribution of Tunderstorms 401 Lightning and Tunder 403 How Far Away Is the Lightning —Start Counting 403 Electrifcation of Clouds 404 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 14.2 ELVES in the Atmosphere 405 Te Lightning Stroke 405 Lightning Detection and Suppression 408 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION. 14.3 Don’t Sit Under the Apple Tree 409 Summary 411 Key Terms 411 Questions for Review 411 Questions for Tought 412 Problems and Exercises 412 CHaPter 15 Tornadoes 415 Tornadoes: A Few Facts 416 Tornado Life Cycle 416 Tornado Occurrence and Distribution 417 Tornado Winds 419 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 15.1 The Evolution of Tornado Watches and Warnings 422 Tornado Outbreaks 423 Tornado Formation 424 Supercell Tornadoes 424 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 15.2 Forecasting Severe Thunderstorms and Tornadoes 428 Nonsupercell Tornadoes 429 Waterspouts 431 Observing Tornadoes and Severe Weather 432 Storm Chasing and Field Research 434 Summary 436 Key Terms 436 Questions for Review 436 Questions for Tought 436 Problems and Exercises 437 © Robert Henson CoNteNtS xiii Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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xiv CONTENTS CHaP ter 16 Hurricanes 439 Tropical Weather 440 Anatomy of a Hurricane 440 Hurricane Formation and Dissipation 443 Te Right Environment 443 Te Developing Storm 444 Te Storm Dies Out 445 Hurricane Stages of Development 445 Investigating the Storm 446 Hurricane Movement 447 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 16.1 How Do Hurricanes Compare with Middle-Latitude Cyclones 448 Naming Hurricanes and Tropical Storms 450 Devastating Winds the Storm Surge and Flooding 452 Classifying Hurricane Strength 453 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 16.2 Devastating Tropical Storms 454 Hurricane Spawned Tornadoes 455 Hurricane Fatalities 456 Some Notable Hurricanes 456 Galveston 1900 456 New England 1938 456 Camille 1969 457 Hugo 1989 457 Andrew 1992 457 Ivan 2004 458 Katrina and Rita 2005 459 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 16.3 The Record-Setting Atlantic Hurricane Seasons of 2004 and 2005 460 Sandy 2012 461 Devastating Tropical Cyclones Around the World 462 Hurricane Watches and Warnings 464 FOCUS ON AN ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE 16.4 Hurricanes in a Warmer World 465 Hurricane Forecasting Techniques 466 Modifying Hurricanes 467 Summary 468 Key Terms 468 Questions for Review 468 Questions for Tought 469 Problems and Exercises 469 CHaP ter 17 Global Climate 471 A World with Many Climates 472 Global Temperatures 472 Global Precipitation 473 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 17.1 Precipitation Extremes 476 Climatic Classifcation 477 Te Ancient Greeks 477 Te Köppen System 477 Tornthwaite’s System 477 Te Global Pattern of Climate 478 Tropical Moist Climates Group A 478 Dry Climates Group B 484 Moist Subtropical Mid-Latitude Climates Group C 486 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 17.2 A Desert with Clouds and Drizzle 487 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 17.3 When Does a Dry Spell Become a Drought 490 Moist Continental Climates Group D 490 Polar Climates Group E 493 FOCUS ON AN ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE 17.4 Are Plant Hardiness Zones Shifiting Northward 496 Highland Climates Group H 497 NASA Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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CoNteNtS xv CoNteNtS xv Summary 498 Key Terms 498 Questions for Review 498 Questions for Tought 499 Problems and Exercises 499 CHaP ter 18 Earth’s Changing Climate 501 Reconstructing Past Climates 502 Climate Troughout the Ages 504 Temperature Trends during the Past 1000 Y ears 505 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 18.1 The Ocean’s Influence on Rapid Climate Change 506 Temperature Trends during the Past 100-Plus Years 507 Climate Change Caused by Natural Events 508 Climate Change: Feedback Mechanisms 508 Climate Change: Plate Tectonics and Mountain Building 509 Climate Change: Variations in Earth’s Orbit 511 Climate Change: Variations in Solar Output 514 Climate Change: Atmospheric Particles 514 Climate Change Caused by Human Anthropogenic Activities 516 Climate Change: Aerosols Injected into the Lower Atmosphere 516 Climate Change: Greenhouse Gases 517 Climate Change: Land Use Changes 517 FOCUS ON AN ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE 18.2 Nuclear Winter Cold Summers and Dead Dinosaurs 518 Climate Change: Global Warming 519 Recent Global Warming: Perspective 519 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 18.3 The Sahel—An Example of Climatic Variability and Human Existence 520 FOCUS ON AN ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE 18.4 The Extremes of 2011 and 2012: Did Climate Change Play a Role 521 Future Climate Change: Projections 522 FOCUS ON A SPECIAL TOPIC 18.5 Climate Models —A Quick Glance 524 Consequences of Climate Change: Te Possibilities 527 FOCUS ON AN ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE 18.6 Ozone and the Ozone Hole: Their Influence on Climate Change 527 Climate Change: Eforts to Curb 530 Summary 532 Key Terms 532 Questions for Review 532 Questions for Tought 533 Problems and Exercises 533 CHaP ter 19 Air Pollution 535 A Brief History of Air Pollution 536 Types and Sources of Air Pollutants 537 FOCUS ON AN ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE 19.1 Indoor Air Pollution 538 Principal Air Pollutants 540 Ozone in the Troposphere 542 Ozone in the Stratosphere 543 FOCUS ON AN ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE 19.2 The Ozone Hole 546 Air Pollution: Trends and Patterns 547 © C. Donald Ahrens CoNteNtS xv Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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Factors Tat Afect Air Pollution 550 Te Role of the Wind 550 Te Role of Stability and Inversions 550 FOCUS ON SPECIAL TOPIC 19.3 Smokestack Plumes 553 Te Role of Topography 554 Severe Air Pollution Potential 554 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 19.4 Five Days in Donora—An Air Pollution Episode 556 Air Pollution and the Urban Environment 556 FOCUS ON SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACT 19.5 Heat Waves and Air Pollution: A Deadly Team 558 Acid Deposition 559 Summary 561 Key Terms 561 Questions for Review 561 Questions for Tought 562 Problems and Exercises 562 CHaP ter 20 Light Color and Atmospheric Optics 565 White and Colors 566 Scattered Light 566 Blue Skies and Hazy Days 566 White Clouds and Dark Bases 567 Crepuscular and Anticrepuscular Rays 569 Red Suns and Blue Moons 569 Twinkling Twilight and the Green Flash 571 Te Mirage: Seeing Is Not Believing 573 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 20.1 The Fata Morgana 575 Halos Sundogs and Sun Pillars 575 Rainbows 578 Coronas Glories and Heiligenschein 581 FOCUS ON AN OBSERVATION 20.2 Can It Be a Rainbow If It Is Not Raining 581 Summary 584 Key Terms 584 Questions for Review 584 Questions for Tought 585 Problems and Exercises 585 a PPeNdIX a Units Conversions Abbreviations and Equations A-1 aPPeNd IX B Weather Symbols and the Station Model A-4 aPPeNd IX C Global Average Annual Precipitation A-6 Glossary G-1 Additional Reading Material R-1 Index I-1 © C. Donald Ahrens xvi CONTENTS Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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eNergy: WarMINg tHe eartH aNd tHe atMoSPHere xvii PreFaCe T he world is an ever-changing picture of naturally occurring events. From drought and famine to devastating foods some of the greatest challenges we face come in the form of natural disasters created by weather. Y et dealing with weather and climate is an inevitable part of our lives. Sometimes it is as small as deciding what to wear for the day or how to plan a vacation. But it can also have life-shattering consequences es- pecially for those who are victims of a hurricane or a tornado. W eather has always been front-page news but in recent years extreme weather seems to receive an ever-increasing amount of coverage. From the record-setting tornadoes of 2011 to widespread drought in 2012 and the devastation wrought by Hurricane/Superstorm Sandy late that year weather has enor - mous impact on our lives. Te longer-term challenges of an evolv- ing climate also demand our attention whether it be rising sea levels near-record global temperatures intensifed downpours or the retreat of Arctic sea ice. Tanks in part to the rise of social media more people than ever are sharing their weather-related observations impressions and photographs with the world at large. For these and many other reasons interest in meteorol- ogy the study of the atmosphere continues to grow. One of the reasons that meteorology is such an engaging science to study is that the atmosphere is a universally accessible laboratory for everyone. Although the atmosphere will always provide chal- lenges for us as research and technology advance our ability to understand and predict our atmosphere improves as well. We hope this book serves to assist you as you develop your own per- sonal understanding and appreciation of our planet’s dynamic spectacular atmosphere. About This Book Meteorology Today is written for college-level students tak- ing an introductory course on the atmospheric environment. As was the case in previous editions no special prerequisites are necessary. Te main purpose of the text is to convey me- teorological concepts in a visual and practical manner while simultaneously providing students with a comprehensive background in basic meteorology. Tis eleventh edition in- cludes up-to-date information on important topics includ- ing climate change ozone depletion and El Niño. Also in - cluded are discussions of high-profle weather events such as droughts heat waves tornado outbreaks and hurricanes of recent years. Written expressly for the student this book emphasizes the understanding and application of meteorological principles. Te text encourages watching the weather so that it becomes “alive ” allowing readers to immediately apply textbook material to the world around them. To assist with this endeavor a color Cloud Chart appears at the end of this text. Te Cloud Chart can be sep - arated from the book and used as a learning tool any place where one chooses to observe the sky . Numerous full-color illustrations and photographs illustrate key features of the atmosphere stimu- late interest and show how exciting the study of weather can be. Afer an introductory chapter on the composition origin and structure of the atmosphere the book covers energy tem - perature moisture precipitation and winds. Next come chapters that deal with air masses and middle-latitude cyclones followed by weather prediction and severe storms including a newly separated and enlarged chapter devoted to tornadoes. W rapping up the book are chapters on hurricanes global climate climate change air pollution and atmospheric optics. Tis book is structured to provide maximum fexibility to instructors of atmospheric science courses with chapters gener - ally designed so that they can be covered in any desired order. For example the chapter on atmospheric optics Chapter 20 is self-contained and can be covered before or afer any chapter. In - structors then are able to tailor this text to their particular needs. Each chapter contains at least two Focus sections which ex - pand on material in the main text or explore a subject closely related to what is being discussed. Focus sections fall into one of fve distinct categories: Observations Special Topics Envi- ronmental Issues Advanced Topics and Social and Economic Impacts. Some include material that is not always found in intro - ductory meteorology textbooks such as temperature extremes cloud seeding and the weather on other planets. Others help to bridge theory and practice. Focus sections new to this edition in - clude “Te Challenge of Predicting El Niño and La Niña ” Chap - ter 10 “Te Forecast Funnel” and “Te Forecast in Words and Pictures” Chapter 13 “Te Evolution of T ornado W atches and W arnings” Chapter 15 and “ Are Plant Hardiness Zones Shifing Northward” Chapter 17. Quantitative discussions of impor - tant equations such as the geostrophic wind equation and the hydrostatic equation are found in Focus sections on advanced topics. Set apart as “Weather Watch” features in each chapter is weather information that may not be commonly known yet per - tains to the topic under discussion. Designed to bring the reader into the text most of these weather highlights relate to some in - teresting weather fact or astonishing event. Each chapter incorporates other efective learning aids: ● A major topic outline begins each chapter. ● Interesting introductory pieces draw the reader naturally into the main text. ● Important terms are boldfaced with their definitions ap pearing in the glossary or in the text. ● Key phrases are italicized. ● English equivalents of metric units in most cases are imme- diately provided in parentheses. PreFaCe xvii Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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xviii PREFACE ● A brief review of the main points is placed toward the mid- dle of most chapters. ● Each chapter ends with a summary of the main ideas. ● A list of key terms with page references follows each chapter allowing students to review and reinforce their know1edge of key concepts. ● Questions for Review act to check how well students assimi- late the material. ● Questions for Thought require students to synthesize learned concepts for deeper understanding. ● Problems and Exercises require mathematical calculations that provide a technical challenge to the student. ● References to more than 15 Concept Animations are spread throughout the chapters. These animations several of which are new convey an immediate appreciation of how a process works and help students visualize the more difficult con - cepts in meteorology. Animations can be found in MindT ap accessed through CengageBrain.com. ● At the end of each chapter are questions that relate to articles found on the Global Geoscience W atch website available on its own or via MindTap. Tree appendices conclude the book. In addition at the end of the book a compilation of supplementary reading material is presented as is an extensive glossary. New to this edition are Online Appendices that allow students access to a wide variety of supplemental material including tools for weather prediction and background on watches warnings and advisories. On the endsheet at the back of the book is a geophysical map of North America. Te map serves as a quick reference for locat - ing states provinces and geographical features such as moun- tain ranges and large bodies of water. Supplemental Material and Technology Support teCHNology For tH e INStrUCtor Cognero T est Bank/ Cengage Learning T esting Powered by Cognero is a fexible on - line system that allows you to: ● Author edit and manage test bank content from multiple Cengage Learning solutions ● Create multiple test versions in an instant ● Deliver tests from your LMS your classroom or wherever you want Instructor’s Companion Site Everything you need for your course in one place This collection of book-specific lecture and class tools is available online via www .cengage.com/login. Access and download PowerPoint pre - sentations images instructor’s manual videos and more. global geoscience Watch Updated several times a day the Global Geoscience Watch is an ideal one-stop site for classroom discussion and research projects for all things geoscience. Broken into the four key course areas Geography Geology Meteorol - ogy and Oceanography you can easily get to the most relevant content available for your course. Y ou and your students will have access to the latest information from trusted academic journals news outlets and magazines. You also will receive access to sta - tistics primary sources case studies podcasts and much more. teCHNology For tH e StUdeNt MindTap Meteorol - ogy is a new approach to highly personalized online learn - ing. Beyond an eBook homework solution digital supple- ment or premium website MindTap is a digital learning platform that works alongside your campus LMS to deliver course curriculum across the range of electronic devices in your life. MindTap is built on an “app” model allowing en - hanced digital collaboration and delivery of engaging content across a spectrum of Cengage and non-Cengage resources. A Workbook/Study Guide written by Don Ahrens frst au- thor of this book reinforces concepts learned in Meteorology Today Eleventh Edition. Each chapter contains a summary of the text a list of important concepts self-tests with answers which include multiple choice true/false matching short answer and/ or fll in the blank and a list of additional readings. Changes in the Eleventh Edition This edition of Meteorology Today includes a coauthor— meteorologist and science journalist Robert Henson. For more than 20 years Henson has produced publications and websites for the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research which manages the National Center for Atmospheric Research. He is an expert on severe weather including tornadoes thunderstorms and hurricanes. He has also analyzed how television weathercast- ers cover major storms and report on climate change. Henson is the author of four trade books on meteorology including Te Tinking Person ’ s Guide to Climate Change previously Te Rough Guide to Climate Change whose frst edition was shortlisted for the United Kingdom’s Royal Society Prize for Science Books. Te authors have carried out extensive updates and revi- sions to this eleventh edition of Meteorology T oday refecting the Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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PreFaCe xix ever-changing nature of the feld and the atmosphere itself. More than 65 new or revised color illustrations and more than 45 new photos have been added to help visualize the excitement of the atmosphere. ● Chapter 1 “Earth and Its Atmosphere ” continues to serve as a broad overview of the atmosphere. Material that puts meteorology in the context of the scientific method is now presented in the text laying the foundation for the rest of the book. ● Chapter 2 “Energy: Warming Earth and the Atmosphere ” includes updated information on greenhouse gases and their influence on global warming a topic covered in more detail later in the book. The discussion of space weather now appears in a Focus section. ● Chapter 3 “Seasonal and Daily Temperatures” has been restructured so that the material on extreme high and low temperatures is now included in the main narrative. ● Chapter 4 “ Atmospheric Humidity ” continues to convey im- portant concepts related to how humidity is expressed and atmospheric moisture content is measured. ● Chapter 5 “Condensation: Dew Fog and Clouds ” spotlights one of the most recently recognized cloud types asperatus undulatus and features updated information on satellites including the Global Precipitation Measurement GPM mission. ● Chapter 6 “Stability and Cloud Development ” discusses at- mospheric stability and instability and the resulting effects on cloud formation in a carefully sequenced manner with numerous illustrations and several Focus sections helping to make these complex concepts understandable. ● “Precipitation” Chapter 7 includes coverage of the high- impact Atlanta snowstorm of 2014 and other recent snow and ice events as well as expanded discussion of snow mea - surement techniques. ● Chapter 8 “ Air Pressure and Winds ” includes a substantially enhanced description and revised illustrations of the inter - play between the pressure gradient and Coriolis forces in cyclonic and anticylonic flow. Several other illustrations have been revised for clarity. ● Chapter 9 “Wind: Small-Scale and Local Systems ” includes several revised illustrations and a number of other updates including new discussion of such observing systems as sonic anemometers and dropsondes. The Focus section on wind energy has also been updated. ● Chapter 10 “Wind: Global Systems” features a major re- structuring update and expansion of sections dealing with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation Pacific Decadal Oscilla- tion North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation. A new Focus section explains how El Niño and La Niña fore- casts are produced. ● In Chapter 11 “Air Masses and Fronts” the concept of atmospheric rivers is now introduced and a number of illustrations have been revised for clarity. ● With minor revisions Chapter 12 “Middle Latitude Cyclones ” continues to provide a thorough and accessible introduction to this important topic. ● Chapter 13 “Weather Forecasting ” has undergone a major revision. Two new Focus sections introduce the student to the forecast-funnel concept and the ways in which forecasts are communicated verbally and pictorially. The narrative has been restructured so that the student moves from traditional types of weather forecasting to numerical weather predic- tion. In addition an exercise that takes students through the forecasting process now incorporates forecast-funnel concepts. ● Due to strong interest among students and at the suggestion of a number of reviewers the previous single chapter on thunderstorms and tornadoes has been expanded into two chapters each one a manageable length. In Chapter 14 “Thunderstorms ” the discussions of such topics as micro- bursts heat bursts and record hailstones have been updated and the Washington D.C. derecho of 2012 has been included. Both low- and high-precipitation supercells are introduced and capping inversions are discussed at greater length. Chapter 15 “T ornadoes ” includes a new Focus section on the evolution of tornado watches and warnings as well as background on the devastating Oklahoma tornadoes of 2013. Storm chasing is discussed in the context of the VORTEX and VORTEX2 field campaigns and the tragic deaths of several storm researchers in 2013. Both Chapters 14 and 15 include a number of new photographs and illustrations as well as refer - ences to the latest storm-observing technology including dual-polarization and phased-array radars. ● Chapter 16 “Hurricanes ” includes extensive background on Hurricane/Superstorm Sandy 2012 and Super Typhoon Haiyan 2013 as well as new illustrations depicting storm surge processes and wind-speed probabilities. Several new questions and exercises are also included. ● The order of the next two chapters has been reversed. Chapter 17 “Global Climate ” continues to serve as a stand- alone unit on global climatology and classification schemes with updates and revisions reflecting recent data includ- ing the new 1981–2010 United States climate averages. This chapter now includes a new Focus section on the northward movement of United States plant zones. ● Chapter 18 “Earth’s Changing Climate” has undergone extensive updating to reflect recent developments and Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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findings including the Fifth Assessment Report 2013 from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Many graphics have been added or updated. ● Chapter 19 “ Air Pollution ” reflects a number of updates in - cluding the role of airborne ammonia and particulates as well as recent progress in addressing acid rain and ozone depletion. ● The book concludes with Chapter 20 “Light Color and Atmospheric Optics ” which uses exciting photos and art to convey the beauty of the atmosphere. Acknowledgments Many people have contributed to this eleventh edition of Meteorology Today. A very special and most grateful thank- you goes to Don Ahrens’ wife Lita who indexed and proof- read the entire book. Special thanks also go to Charles Prep- pernau for his care in rendering beautiful artwork and to Judith Chafn for professional and conscientious proofreading. We are indebted to Janet Alleyn who not only designed the book but once again took the photos art and manuscript and turned them into a beautiful book. W e also thank Stuart Kenter for his conscientious editing. Special thanks go to all the people at Cengage Learning who worked on this edition especially Aileen Berg Jake W arde and Hal Humphrey. Tanks to our friends who provided photos and to those reviewers who ofered comments and suggestions for this edi- tion including: Eric Micael Aldric University of Missouri Kim Drager University of Kansas Melissa Godec SUNY Oneonta Redina L. Herman Western Illinois University Larry Hopper University of Louisiana at Monroe Steven Lazarus Florida Institute of Tecnology Victor Meledge -Ade Metropolitan Community College–Longview Peter Ray Florida State University Ric Scultz Elmhurst College Jennifer Sheppard Moraine Valley Community College Brent Skeeter Salisbury University Mike Smith Front Range Community College Kenneth Y anow Southwestern College To the Student Learning about the atmosphere can be a fascinating and en - joyable experience. Tis book is in tended to give you some insight into the workings of the atmosphere. However for a real appreciation of your atmospheric environment you must go outside and observe. Although mountains take millions of years to form a cumulus cloud can develop into a raging thunderstorm in less than an hour. Te atmosphere is al- ways producing something new for us to behold. To help with your observations a color Cloud Chart is at the back of the book for easy reference. Remove it and keep it with you. And remember all of the concepts and ideas in this book are out there for you to discover and enjoy. Please take the time to look. Donald Ahrens and Robert Henson xx PREFACE Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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eNergy: WarMINg tHe eartH aNd tHe atMoSPHere xxi Meteorology today eleVeNt H edItIoN Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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Tom Warner/Weather VideoHD.TV We live at the bottom of a turbulent ocean of air where rising air can form into clouds composed of water and ice. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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Earth and Its Atmosphere I well remember a brilliant red balloon which kept me completely happy for a whole afternoon until while I was playing a clumsy movement allowed it to escape. Spellbound I gazed after it as it drifted silently away gently swaying growing smaller and smaller until it was only a red point in a blue sky. At that moment I real- ized for the first time the vastness above us: a huge space with- out visible limits. It was an apparent void full of secrets exerting an inexplicable power over all the earth’s inhabitants. I believe that many people consciously or unconsciously have been filled with awe by the immensity of the atmosphere. All our knowledge about the air gathered over hundreds of years has not diminished this feeling. Theo Loebsack Our Atmosphere Contents The Atmosphere and the Scientific Method Overview of Earth’s Atmosphere Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere Weather and Climate CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER1 3 Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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4 CHAPTER 1 To be accepted a hypothesis has to be shown to be correct through a series of quantitative tests. In many areas of science such testing is carried out in a laboratory where it can be replicated again and again. Studying the atmosphere however is somewhat difer- ent because Earth has only one atmosphere. Despite this limita- tion scientists have made vast progress by studying the physics and chemistry of air in the laboratory for instance the way in which molecules absorb energy and by extending those understandings to the atmosphere as a whole. Observations using weather instruments allow us to quantify how the atmosphere behaves and to determine whether a prediction is correct. If a particular kind of weather is be - ing studied such as hurricanes or snowstorms a feld campaign can gather additional observations to test specifc hypotheses. Over the last 50 years computers have given atmospheric scientists a tremendous boost. Te physical laws that control atmospheric behavior can be represented in sofware packages known as numerical models. Forecasts can be made and tested many times over. Te atmosphere within a model can be used to depict weather conditions from the past and project them into the future. When a model can accurately simulate past weather conditions and provide confdence in its portrayal of tomorrow’ s weather the model can provide valuable information about the weather and climate we may expect decades from now. Overview of Earth’s Atmosphere The scientific method has not only illuminated our understanding of weather and climate but also provided much information about the universe that surrounds us. The universe contains billions of galaxies and each galaxy is made up of billions of stars. Stars are hot glowing balls of gas that generate energy by converting hydrogen into helium near their centers. Our sun is an average-sized star O ur atmosphere is a delicate life-giving blanket of air that surrounds the fragile Earth. In one way or another it in - fuences everything we see and hear—it is intimately connected to our lives. Air is with us from birth and we cannot detach ourselves from its presence. In the open air we can travel for many thousands of kilometers in any horizontal direction but should we move a mere eight kilometers above the surface we would sufocate. We may be able to survive without food for a few weeks or without water for a few days but without our atmosphere we would not survive more than a few minutes. Just as fsh are confned to an environment of water so we are con- fned to an ocean of air. Anywhere we go air must go with us. Earth without an atmosphere would have no lakes or oceans. Tere would be no sounds no clouds no red sunsets. Te beauti - ful pageantry of the sky would be absent. It would be unimagin - ably cold at night and unbearably hot during the day. All things on Earth would be at the mercy of an intense sun beating down upon a planet utterly parched. Living on the surface of Earth we have adapted so com- pletely to our environment of air that we sometimes forget how truly remarkable this substance is. Even though air is tasteless odorless and most of the time invisible it protects us from the scorching rays of the sun and provides us with a mixture of gases that allows life to fourish. Because we cannot see smell or taste air it may seem surprising that between your eyes and the pages of this book are trillions of air molecules. Some of these may have been in a cloud only yesterday or over another continent last week or perhaps part of the life-giving breath of a person who lived hundreds of years ago. In this chapter we will examine a number of important con - cepts and ideas about Earth’ s atmosphere many of which will be expanded in subsequent chapters. The Atmosphere and the Scientific Method Our understanding of the atmosphere and how it produces weather is built on knowledge acquired and applied through the scientific method . This technique allows us to make informed predictions about how the natural world will behave. For hun- dreds of years the scientific method has served as the backbone for advances in medicine biology engineering and many other fields. In the field of atmospheric science the scientific method has paved the way for the production of weather forecasts that have steadily improved over time. Investigators use the scientifc method by posing a question putting forth a hypothesis predicting what the hypothesis would imply if it were true and carrying out tests to see if the prediction is accurate. Many common sayings about the weather such as “red sky at morning sailor take warning red sky at night sailor’ s delight ” are rooted in careful observation and there are grains of truth in some of them. However they are not considered to be products of the scientifc method because they are not tested and verifed in a standard rigorous way. See verifed in a standard rigorous way. See Fig. 1.1. FIGURE 1.1 Observing the natural world is a critical part of the scientifc method. Here a vibrant red sky is visible at sunset. One might use the scientifc method to verify the old proverb “Red sky at morning sailors take warning red sky at night sailor’s delight.” © UCAR Photo by Carlye Calvin A hypothesis is an assertion that is subject to verifcation of proof. Copyright 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied scanned or duplicated in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapters. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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