Chapter 3Learning and Memory: Chapter 3 Learning and Memory The Learning Process: The Learning Process Learning:
A relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience
Unintentional acquisition of knowledge
Learning is an Ongoing Process:
Constantly being revised
Can be either simple association (logo recognition) or complex cognitive activity (writing an essay) Behavioral Learning Theories: Behavioral Learning Theories Assume that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events.
View is represented by two major approaches to learning:
1) Classical Conditioning
2) Instrumental Conditioning
People’s experiences shaped by feedback they receive as they go through life
Actions result in rewards and punishments, which influences future responses to similar situations. The Consumer as a “Black Box”A Behaviorist Perspective on Learning: The Consumer as a “Black Box” A Behaviorist Perspective on Learning Type 1: Classical Conditioning: Type 1: Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov’s Dogs
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) – Naturally capable of causing a response. Something you do automatically.
Conditioned stimulus (CS) – Does not initially cause a response. This is the part you have to learn
Conditioned response (CR) – Response generated by repeated paired exposures to UCS and CS. Eventually, through learned association and repetition, the CS will cause the CR.
These are enduring connections, hard to break in consumers’ minds. Type 1: Classical Conditioning: Type 1: Classical Conditioning Needs repetition to make it stick
Pair positive stimuli to create a desirable association
Brand names and emotions connected, increased brand equity
Transfer meaning from UCS to CS
Coke, Marlboro, Nike, Xbox
Most effective when CS precedes UCS
Not as effective in print: can’t control order in which consumer sees the info
Link can be extinguished if it is too general, can be confused with other CS-CR linkages Stimulus Generalization: Stimulus Generalization Stimulus generalization:
Tendency of a stimulus similar to the CS to evoke similar, conditioned responses. Piggybacking on others’ UCS-CR.
Can be used for:
Product line extensions
Look-alike packaging: Store Brands like Genuardi’s brand of tissues looking like Kleenex box of tissues.
Masked branding: Deliberately hiding a product’s true origin (Plank Road Brewery (Micro-Brew) owned by Miller): Stimulus Generalization: Stimulus Generalization TIDE
Mobile Phone “Anti-Generalization”: Masked Branding: “Anti-Generalization”: Masked Branding Type 2: Instrumental Conditioning: Type 2: Instrumental Conditioning Occurs as the individual learns to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes and avoid behaviors that yield negative outcomes
A.K.A. “Operant Conditioning”
Occurs one of three ways:
Positive reinforcement: Positive response to behavior
Negative reinforcement: Negative outcome avoided
Punishment: Negative response to behavior Four Types of Learning Outcomes: Four Types of Learning Outcomes Figure 3.2 Type 2: Instrumental Conditioning: Type 2: Instrumental Conditioning Called instrumental conditioning because the behavior is instrumental in either gaining reward, avoiding consequences
Can be reinforced regularly (frequent flier tickets after certain number of segments) or irregularly (slot machines) to generate behaviors Instrumental Conditioning Strategies: Instrumental Conditioning Strategies Reinforce Consumption:
Follow-up phone calls
Reinforces regular purchases by giving them rewards with values that increase along with the amount purchased
Frequent flyer miles
Coupons/discounts for loyal shoppers Cognitive Learning Theory: Cognitive Learning Theory Argues people are problem solvers who use info to process and think about their decisions
Conditioning occurs because people think about the link between CS/UCS and CR
Not simply an automatic response
Develop hypotheses and act on them
Example: Observational learning
Occurs when people watch the actions of others and note reinforcements received for their behaviors
Learning occurs as a result of vicarious, rather than direct, experience. Components of Observational Learning: Components of Observational Learning Advantages of Cognitive Learning Process: Advantages of Cognitive Learning Process Consumers learn vicariously by seeing others receive reinforcement for their behaviors.
Marketers can reinforce or punish consumers indirectly by showing what happens to desirable models who do or do not use their products.
Consumers’ evaluations of models are not limited to stimulus-response connections.
Attractiveness can be based on several components (e.g. physical attractiveness, expertise, similarity to the evaluator) The Role of Memory in Learning: The Role of Memory in Learning Memory
A process of acquiring and storing information such that it will be available when needed.
Internal (what you remember) and external memory (info from marketing stimuli)
Stages of memory
Information entered in a recognizable way
Knowledge integrated into what is already there and warehoused
The person accesses the desired information The Memory Process: The Memory Process Figure 3.4 Encoding Information: Encoding Information Provoking a memory through meaning:
Sensory meaning (e.g. color or shape)
Sense of familiarity (e.g. seeing a food that we have tasted)
ifilm: I’m Going to Disney World (Superbowl 2006)
Semantic meaning: Symbolic associations (e.g. rich people drink champagne) Encoding Information: Encoding Information Provoking a memory through personal relevance:
Episodic memories: Relate to events that are personally relevant
ifilm: Fidelity Paul McCarthy, NFL Network: Fans
Flashbulb memories: Especially vivid associations
Narrative: An effective way of persuading people to construct a mental representation of the information that they are viewing Memory Systems: Memory Systems Sensory Memory:
Very temporary storage of information we receive from our senses
Short-Term Memory (STM):
Limited period of time & limited capacity
Working memory (i.e., holds memory we are currently processing)
Long-Term Memory (LTM):
Can retain information for a long period of time
Elaboration rehearsal is required: Process involves thinking about a stimulus and relating it to information already in memory Memory Systems: Memory Systems Storing Information in Memory: Storing Information in Memory Most research shows that STM and LTM are interdependent.
Depending on the task, different levels of each are activated, different processing occurs
Called Activation Models of Memory:
The more effort it takes to process information, the more likely that information will be placed in LTM. Storing Memory Through Activation Models: Storing Memory Through Activation Models Based on Associative Networks:
Memory contains many bits of related information organized according to some set of relationships
Like a “spider web” filled with pieces of data, consisting of links between nodes, or pieces of information
Recalled associative network brands are evoked set
To get into network, new brand must link to node in memory somehow through cues An Associative Network for Perfumes: An Associative Network for Perfumes Figure 3.6 Storing Memory Through Activation Models: Storing Memory Through Activation Models Memory Generates Spreading Activation:
One node activated, spreads to other nodes
Concepts in network are activated, brings up info like attributes, competitors, etc.
Nodes link together in different levels of knowledge:
Nodes are data points
Propositions/beliefs are combinations of nodes
Propositions/Beliefs combine into schema
More consistent the new info is with the existing schema, easier it is to encode Retrieving Information forPurchase Decisions: Retrieving Information for Purchase Decisions Factors Influencing Retrieval:
Physiological Factors (e.g. age)
Amount of attention paid to the message
Viewing environment: Commercials shown first in a series of ads are recalled better than those shown last.
State of Retrieval when trying to recall (mood congruence)
Familiarity with the item
Salience of the brand (prominence in memory)
Pictorial v. verbal cue Pictorial versus Verbal Cues: Pictorial versus Verbal Cues There is some evidence for the superiority of visual memory over verbal memory.
Pictorial ads may enhance recall, but do not necessarily improve comprehension. Pictorial versus Verbal Cues: Pictorial versus Verbal Cues Pictorial versus Verbal Cues: Pictorial versus Verbal Cues Factors Influencing Forgetting: Factors Influencing Forgetting Decay:
Structural changes in the brain produced by learning simply go away.
Consumers forget stimulus-response associations when new responses to the same or similar stimuli are learned.
As new responses are learned, a stimulus loses its effectiveness in retrieving the old response.
Part-list Cueing Effect:
When only a portion of the items in a category are presented to consumers, the omitted items are not as easily recalled. Mentioning some competitors in an ad may inhibit recall of the competitor not mentioned. Products as Memory Markers: Products as Memory Markers Products and ads can serve as powerful retrieval cues.
Ads and products that remind consumers of their past also help to determine what they like now.
ifilm: 50 Years of Disney
Memories of the Past as Retrieval Cues: Memories of the Past as Retrieval Cues Nostalgia Appeal: Nostalgia Appeal Fossil’s product designs evoke memories of earlier classic
designs Measuring Memory for Marketing Stimuli: Measuring Memory for Marketing Stimuli Recognition Versus Recall:
Two basic measures of impact.
Typical recognition test: Subjects are shown ads and asked if they have seen them before.
Tends to be more reliable, doesn’t decay over time
More important when info is present (shopping)
Typical recall test: Subjects are asked to independently think of what they have seen without being prompted first.
More important when no product data (referral)