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Traffic Injury Research Foundation Lifesavers Chicago, IL March 25th, 2007Background : Background Repeat offenders have become a priority issue in recent years. TIRF conducted a major national study in the area of hard core repeat offenders under funding from Anheuser-Busch Companies. It focused on priority problems and solutions in each phase of the justice system, working with thousands of practitioners across the U.S. What is needed?: What is needed? Enhanced training and education. Improved communication and cooperation among professionals. Improved records: timeliness, linkages, and access. Greater use of technology. Legislation and regulation. More resources.Acceptance: Acceptance American Judges Association American Probation and Parole Association American Prosecutors Research Institute Association of Transportation Safety Information Professionals California District Attorneys Association Center for Substance Abuse Treatment Conference of State Court Administrators Council of State Governments Governors Highway Safety Association International Association of Chiefs of Police Institute of Police Technology and Management Journal of Offender Monitoring National Association of Prosecutor Coordinators National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors Acceptance: Acceptance National Association of State Judicial Educators National Criminal Justice Association National Center for State Courts National Conference of State Legislatures National District Attorneys Association National Employers for Traffic Safety National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism National Institute of Corrections National Institute of Justice National Transportation Safety Board National Judicial College National Traffic Law Center Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration Washington Traffic Safety CommissionSummary report: Summary report Summary report identified 6 priority areas for improving the DWI system: Communication and cooperation Training and education Technology Records Legislation Resources Report facilitated formation of Working Group on DWI System Improvements.Overview : Overview Summarize research, technology, and program information about two promising devices to reduce impaired driving. Direct you to key resources. Introduction: Introduction An interlock is a breath-testing device attached to a car starter. It prevents ignition when a pre-set level of alcohol is detected in the breath sample provided by, presumably, the driver.Introduction: Introduction Most states have enabling legislation and programs. Interlocks are used irregularly – 120,000 in NA. Situation due to a lack of information. Research in the field is substantial and impressive yet not well known. Urban myths/legends about technology have been difficult to overcome.Technology: Technology Two types of devices – semiconductor and fuel cell. Device features can be customized to each jurisdiction (e.g., BAC threshold, pull over notice, emergency override). Anti-circumvention systems: temperature and pressure gauges sealed wiring driver recognition systems data recording device running retests Research: Research How effective is it? reductions in recidivism range from 45%-90% (first/repeat offenders). results come from several peer-reviewed studies and a meta-analysis. main limitation of research is self-selection bias.Research: Research What happens when interlock is removed? recidivism rates return to levels comparable to non-interlocked offenders this does not mean that interlocks are not effective - net benefit still remains Elevated and early-morning BAC tests can predict likelihood of future offenses. Offenders agree interlocks are effective and a fair sanction. Facts about offenders: Facts about offenders How do offenders try to circumvent the device? claim they do not intend to drive claim they do not own a vehicle claim they are unable to provide a sufficient breath sample fail to install the interlock fail to drive the interlocked vehicleJudicial concerns: Judicial concerns Several concerns about the use of interlocks: mouth alcohol insufficient breath sample inconvenience to family identifying the driver cost Key issues: Key issues Education and awareness Funding Monitoring and compliance Criterion-based procedures Integrating treatment TIRF Resources: TIRF Resources International inventory of interlock programs (www.tirf.ca) From Research to Practice: A Primer for Judges A Criminal Justice Perspective on Ignition Interlocks – Proceedings from the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Working Group on DWI System Improvements. Visit www.tirf.ca to obtain these resources.Conclusions about interlocks: Conclusions about interlocks Interlock technology is sophisticated and state-of-the-art. Reductions in recidivism are considerable and substantiated by sound research. Program implementation has been inconsistent. Program standards are critical. More education is need to ensure broad acceptance – curriculum on interlocks currently being developed at TIRF. Introduction: Introduction Almost all impaired driving offenders are ordered, as a condition of probation, to refrain from consuming alcohol. Monitoring has been inconsistent using standard test protocols. As a result, sobriety among offenders has been notoriously difficult to enforce. Transdermal testing monitors 24/7 and is being used in more than 40 states. Introduction: Introduction This is a secure, continuous, remote, alcohol monitoring device - SCRAM. It measures alcohol excreted through the skin as constant, insensible perspiration.Technology: Technology SCRAM is the only commercially available transdermal alcohol monitoring system. 3 components to SCRAM: an 8oz bracelet a modem a secure website (SCRAMNET) Anti-circumvention systemsTechnology: Technology Alcohol positive readings: device only registers ethyl alcohol some foods and medical conditions produce endogenous alcohol sufficient quantities to result in a positive reading are unlikely certain substances containing alcohol (e.g., perfume, hand sanitizer), act as interferant generally distinguished from true positives based on differences in absorption/ elimination rates and alcohol curve generated. notifications only sent for confirmed events.Research: Research Measuring alcohol in perspiration: transdermal excretion of alcohol has been studied and understood since 1936. ingested alcohol diffuses through water in the body - blood, breath, urine, and perspiration about 1% of ingested alcohol crosses the skin as sensible or insensible perspiration. alcohol in sweat increases with mean concentration of alcohol in the blood simultaneous blood and transdermal readings will not produce comparable results at a specific point in time.Research summary: Research summary SCRAM is a valid and reliable way of testing for alcohol use. Technology not designed to provide a precise BAC at a specific point in time. Officers and offenders in studies generally approve of the technology and believe it has merit. More large-scale quantitative surveys and case-control studies are needed to corroborate findings and answer questions regarding other issues. NHTSA evaluation.Program applications: Program applications Principles of sentencing Types of offenders Types of applications Length of monitoring CostsTIRF initiative: TIRF initiative Develop a package of 3 reports to assist criminal justice professionals. overview of the research, technology and programs related to transdermal testing; a practitioner’s guide for frontline professionals to facilitate implementation. an agency administrator’s handbook.Conclusions: Conclusions Technologies are tools that can facilitate the supervision of impaired driving offenders. Technologies can help identify those offenders posing the greatest risk of re-offending. Technologies in combination with appropriate treatment and consistent monitoring can facilitate behavior change. Technologies are dual-purpose – they can reinforce positive behavior and punish bad behavior. Staying informed: Staying informed www.tirf.ca You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.