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Typical Collective Violence: 

Typical Collective Violence Wars came with the formation of a civilization History shows that humans engaged in wars frequently and these wars destroyed immeasurable lives Einstein once said: “Is there a way to liberate mankind from the doom of war?” Reasons for wars range from to “survival instinct” to pseudo-scientific claims of superiority, which lead to hatred and killing. One particular reason: traumatic memory results in self-righteous exercise of violence in the name of vengeance

The Origins of human violence: 

The Origins of human violence Nature/nurture dichotomy Aggression Death instinct (innate aggression) Destructive (active) Reactive (response to frustration, humiliation, and endangerment) cultural identities Ideology Religious Ethnicity Gender Class Traumatic memory Natural Philosophy of Violence Impulsion of qi, which is shared by nature and human

Natural Philosophy of Violence: 

Natural Philosophy of Violence Developed in the Warring Reciprocal dialectic of nature and culture Human behaviors mirror natural order Qi is shared by myriad things/creatures and is the origin of violence Men and physical world act directly upon one another through the medium of qi Natural environment, human physiology, and political action are interconnected and mutually influence

Sanctioned Violence: 

Sanctioned Violence Expressions of qi in natural and physical world Common expression: Wind (feng), storm, thunderstorm, Violent expression: killing (punishment) Expressions of qi in human world Common expression: anger, aggression Violent expression: killing in the form of punishment killing in the form of vengeance

Extension of the qi /feng Theory: 

Extension of the qi /feng Theory Qi/Feng is used to denote environmental influences Shapes distinctive behavior or temperament characteristic of each region Shapes the spirits and the bodies of men Men’s lives and their environments act reciprocally through the medium of wind This theory of environmental influence is now known as “wind and water” (fengshui) “Blood and qi” (animal energies, valor) in human body, once excited or aroused, can lead to bellicosity and violence

Civilization and Collective Violence: 

Civilization and Collective Violence Violence came with civilization The Yellow Emperor Myth Created with a belief that in the earliest times men had not been clearly distinguished from animals sages separated men from the animals, undertaking the effort of making “separation” and “distinction” The Yellow Emperor was the foremost among these sages Initially, one of the nobles under the Divine Husbandman, the ruler Practiced the use of weapons to help the Divine Husbandman to punish those who did not attend the ruler’s court

War Literature: 

War Literature Stresses that qi is essential to victory Military commander guides the expression of qi Individual qi gives way to group/collective qi Drum, bells, music, war dance are used to stir up the qi of the troops and horses Commander possesses the deamon-like qualities and knows how to lead his army by following natural order (proper seasons) to attack He knows how to manipulate qi of his soldiers and channel this qi into becoming effective fighting spirits.

Yellow Emperor Subdued the Fiery Emperor and Chi You: 

Yellow Emperor Subdued the Fiery Emperor and Chi You “He cultivated his spiritual potency and arrayed his troops. He channeled the five qi, planted the five grains, consoled the myriad people, measured the four quarters, and instructed the bears, leopards, and tigers, and with them he battled the Fiery Emperor and killed him. Then the nobles reverenced him as the Son of Heaven…” The Yellow Emperor levied armies of the nobles, battled with Chi You, and killed him led an expedition against any states that did not obey him….and conquered all of them.

Battled with Chi You: 

Battled with Chi You “Chi You created weapons and attacked the Yellow Emperor, so the Yellow Emperor ordered the Responding Dragon to attack him at Jizhou. The dragon sucked up the waters, but Chi You asked the Wind Monarch and Rain Master to unleash great winds and rain. The Yellow Emperor then called down the celestial woman Bo, and the rain stopped, whereupon he killed Chi You.” “The Yellow Emperor battled Chi You at Zhuo Lu, and Chi You created fog which lasted three days. The soldiers did not know what to do, so the Yellow Emperor ordered the Wind Monarch to imitate the North Star [the Yellow Emperor’s spirit progenitor and create the “south-pointing chariot” [a proto-compass] in order to distinguish the four directions, and they captured Chi You.”

Two Creators of Warfare: 

Two Creators of Warfare The Yellow Emperor and Chi You were two creators and patrons of warfare Chi You, created weapons to destroy human, political order The Yellow Emperor, implemented weapons to restore order Both were bringers of storm and introducer of warfare Both became cult figures and were sacrificed in rituals, particularly those associated with warfare

Symbolism of the Yellow Emperor: 

Symbolism of the Yellow Emperor The tales of the Yellow Emperor and his battles were reinterpreted as accounts of the origins of violence The Yellow Emperor symbolized the power that destroyed the creator of weapons and warfare He became ancient prototype for all the major innovations in warfare His heroism on the filed of battle, which took the form of collective violence, was glorified.

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