SessionVIbyCornutADE MEFrance

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Financing Energy Efficient Buildings….: 

Financing Energy Efficient Buildings…. What is needed for a transition and a market transformation? Eng. Bernard CORNUT - ADEME

Building… a favourable context…: 

Building… a favourable context… The main parameters are the energy bills… So the key is tariffs of energy & power applied… in so many climatic & socioeconomic contexts. But the complex links between the building quality, the behaviour, the appliances and the energy bills & comfort are not easily understood by the users, or architect, or «engineer»… civil, electrical, mechanical. What about all others: banker, city planner, contractor, real estate agent, rental broker?

Building for the climate (s), 4 seasons, 24 hours: 

Building for the climate (s), 4 seasons, 24 hours

Climatic zones: dilemma on the borders…: 

Climatic zones: dilemma on the borders… Turkey has 4 climatic zones for compulsory Insulation Standard of new buildings… But the zoning was made on basis of mean temperature during winter only (heating). South-East & North-West both in climatic zone 2 are very different in summer! Look at map of yearly mean air humidity ! Good design at Istanbul might be bad at Urfa. The zoning is under revision. Recommendations will be made for improving summer comfort…to avoid A/C!

Facing diversity in building types & housing modes: 

Facing diversity in building types & housing modes

Facing diversity in building types & housing modes: 

Facing diversity in building types & housing modes New construction vs. Stock of various ages Owners vs. Tenants (one vs. many owners) Rent indexed? on what? typical duration of rent? Private owners vs. corporations-banks-public org. Single house vs. multi-storey buildings Cadastral, architectural, civil & urban patterns: strict compliance or jungle? Strong or vague joint ownership law? How are the powers balanced: state, municipality, local associations, capital?

Key issues, but often neglected by the energy expert: 

Key issues, but often neglected by the energy expert Who decides the building coefficients? How is the built area defined? with/without balconies, common areas, outside wall perimeter or inside external insulation. What exactly says the law on decision making process for renovation works in joint ownership? What if the owner refuses to pay his share? What are the details of the mortgage law, if any?

New buildings : Design> Construction> Control > Operation > Evaluation Basic requirements to get an EE building: 

New buildings : Design> Construction> Control > Operation > Evaluation Basic requirements to get an EE building Interactive dialogue between architect & thermal engineer, to avoid mistakes, like excess openings to the west, lack of cross ventilation, lack of technical gallery... Experienced site engineer & manpower for construction details of insulation (avoiding thermal bridges, condensation…), plastering, material compatibility, reservations… Qualified & honest controllers to check compliance Well equipped specialists for audit & certification

Training Training Training: 

Training Training Training For architects & designers: refreshing short courses are a must, as practical simulation tools were not common 20 years ago! Vocational training must be modernised, demonstrating the best available techniques. Demonstrative, innovative & monitored buildings should be widely publicised among professional and general audiences. Even the politicians should know about the energy saving potentials of new & existing buildings, to be encouraged to tackle the energy tariffs issues

New & Old, transition or market transformation: financing needs confidence.: 

New & Old, transition or market transformation: financing needs confidence. Promoting EE for new buildings: making the hidden visible, with labels, stars, solar Facilitating audit, cost estimate... & decision Standard quality chart, and some guarantee of results, to please the banker! Energy efficiency means a lower operation cost, less risk for a loan, rare default. Investment made helps to raise the sale/resale value.

Back to Energy and Power: 

Back to Energy and Power Quantitative understanding of the sources of energy consumption (mainly kWh and gas) per use and of the load curves (both seasonal & hourly) is a must. Monitoring campaigns for a stratified sample of households are helpful to derive this knowledge. Focus also on uses during critical periods (evening peak, seasonal shortage) Practical research is needed on behaviours with home appliances and comfort conditions. Manufacturers, distributors & installers of appliances for homes & commercial buildings must be mobilised for promoting EE appliances.

Energy at home & offices: Behaviours & Climate incidence: 

Energy at home & offices: Behaviours & Climate incidence Knowledge of kWh consumption per appliance or per use in households sector, every hour, every season, is essential. Monitoring campaigns for selected samples of households & commercial buildings are the best way.

Looking at constraints, true costs of energy, & trends: 

Looking at constraints, true costs of energy, & trends What are the key problems in power? Recovery of bills ? Too low tariffs for irrigation or public lighting? Seasonal and/or evening peaks? Capital Cost for extending gas distribution networks? CO2 future constraints? Weak control of buildings? All problems together + ??

Energy Tariffs : a global jungle. From Price of Oil Barrel to diesel & kWh prices, all taxes included: 

Energy Tariffs : a global jungle. From Price of Oil Barrel to diesel & kWh prices, all taxes included

What needs co-financing?: 

What needs co-financing? Pre-investment: audits, cost estimates, feasibility studies At what level?: building, block, quarter Investment: key components contributing to EE (double glazing, insulation material, efficient compressor, solar flat collectors etc), as easily surveyed in quantity, or the whole works? But also training packages; reform of regulations & tariffs; monitoring campaigns on energy per use in buildings ; R&D on energy in building for components, systems, softwares; awareness campaigns; evaluation of policies & measures…

Sources & modes of co-financing: 

Sources & modes of co-financing Key : expected savings & added value, clearly depending on tariffs (kWh, kVA, gas..), previous situation, effective payment of due bills... Normal banking system provides loans if risk is low & identified; if arrangements among owners and tenants are clear & manageable; if there are standard reference documents Initial contribution (10-30%) from cash saving & saving accounts of owners and possibly tenants. Local & National sources of co-financing are definitely the main source. Innovations possible!

Adapting an existing financing tool: saving, then loan + premium: 

Adapting an existing financing tool: saving, then loan + premium PEL in France: a 40 years old housing financing scheme: Plan Epargne Logement (Saving Plan for Housing). 1st Step: Flexible saving account for 2-5 years; 2nd Step: Loan up to 20 years with reasonable conditions, on the basis of accrued interests from past savings and on reimbursement capacity, proven by the past savings. Parameters are defined at national level, by decree, in consultation with the Association of banks. Procedures are standard & well publicised by all banks. Competition only for promotion. Largest financing scheme for the French building sector!

Saving scheme, then loan +EEpremium a robust & non inflation financing tool 2/2: 

Saving scheme, then loan +EEpremium a robust & non inflation financing tool 2/2 State gives a premium on top of the private bank loan, also related to the accrued interest of the saving phase. It is capped, at # 1500 € Nearly no default as bank knows the borrower’s monthly saving and reimbursement capacity. The premium could easily be related to the target EE level, for new & rehabilitation. Extra premium could be financed by a small environmental tax on energy.

International Financing opportunities & procedures: 

International Financing opportunities & procedures A normal Bank should be able to channel soft loans for new EE buildings & EE rehabilitation, if an International Financial Institution refinances at a rate softened due to specific concern for environmental protection (for instance EIB: -2%); FFEM : 1-3 M€ grants for GHG mitigation projects. www.ffem.net GEF: from Project identification to preparation & implementation, grants 20 K$ to 20 M$ www.gefweb.org www.undp.org/gef Clean Development Mechanisms… but….

In 50 days, from Aug.8 till Sept.27: 

In 50 days, from Aug.8 till Sept.27 A drop from 79 down to 59 $/barrel That is a global market drop of 800M$ per day ! After a rise from 20 to 60 $/barrel in 2 years Does it compare with the resources of International Financial Institutions for EE? And… Are your retail tariffs indexed to international oil and gas prices?? Are the prices of diesel, petrol, kWh, gas same all over the world, all taxes included???

Think Global, borrow local, act local: 

Think Global, borrow local, act local Combine the short & long terms... reform energy tariffs, to be sustainable promote indexation on the energy prices reform fiscal policy to be environmentally driven promote normal banking loans with EE & renewables premium A multifaceted approach to support actual implementation of Energy Efficiency, this seems the way to facilitate a transition.

Towards a decentralized and balanced financing-funding: 

Towards a decentralized and balanced financing-funding Transition to more EE needs financing, but… Financing needs a stable source of funding… Recommendation: A small environmental tax on all energies, with adequately tuned parameters… Feeding environmental funds at national, regional and obviously municipal levels… which could finance, with part subsidy, all what is needed to move towards more sustainable buildings, better planning & sustainable mobility.

Under the shade of the wisdom tree…: 

Under the shade of the wisdom tree… Sorry if my views & recommendations did not meet your expectations…

Energy Efficiency in Buildings: 

Energy Efficiency in Buildings Thanks you for your attention Your comments are welcome here today or later cornutb@eie.gov.tr or cornut.bernard@wanadoo.fr

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