Day2 091002

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Housekeeping: 

Housekeeping My eye! Lab manuals WEAR COVERED SHOES TO LAB!! Reading assignment for Thursday Syllabus (define what readings are due when) Website http://www.stolaf.edu/courses/current/Biology/125/ Email listserv will be used! Reading assignments Please introduce yourself to me 

Housekeeping: Study Hints: 

Housekeeping: Study Hints Go over your notes soon after class Rewrite your notes Keep a journal

Who are we?: 

Who are we?

Who are we? : 

Who are we? We need structure We need to reproduce We need to grow and develop We need energy We need to interact with the environment

What we will study:: 

What we will study: We need structure Molecular structure: Cell We need to reproduce Genetics We need to grow and develop Cell growth/replication We need energy Cell metabolism We need to interact with the environment Cell sensing/membrane interactions Regulation

What are we composed of?: 

What are we composed of?

What are we composed of? We have structure: 

What are we composed of? We have structure

What are we composed of?: 

What are we composed of? Elements Covalent bonds Atoms Compounds Macromolecules Cell Proteins Lipids Carbohydrates Nucleic acid Carbon compounds Functional groups Nucleus DNA Ribosomes Endomembrane Organelles

What is water made of?: 

What is water made of?

Helium: What is this atom composed of?: 

Helium: What is this atom composed of? What is Helium’s atomic number and weight?

How many protons are in Oxygen? How many neutrons?: 

How many protons are in Oxygen? How many neutrons? O 8 16 What if oxygen had more neutrons?

What about the electrons?: 

What about the electrons?

Slide13: 

What about the electrons?

Slide14: 

Electron shells: energy levels Electron orbitals: electron path, orbitals are within shells Valence electrons: electrons in the outermost shell (most energy)

Slide15: 

Draw an electron shell diagram of these neutral elements? O 8 N 7 Cl 17 C 6

Definitions: 

Definitions Element: atom with property (defined by protons) Subatomic molecules: neutrons, protons, electrons Electon orbitals: electron path Electron shells: electron energy Valence electrons: electrons in outermost shell (most energy)

The major elements in us:: 

The major elements in us: Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon! 9.5% 65% 3.3% 18.5%

Why are electrons interesting in biology?: 

Why are electrons interesting in biology? Electrons determine an element’s chemical behavior How they interact together Molecules

Chemical reaction Combination of two or more elements: 

Chemical reaction Combination of two or more elements Covalent bonds Ionic bonds Weak bonds Hydrogen bonds Van der Waals interactions The type of bond attributes to its properties and its structure

Covalent bond: Molecule: 

Covalent bond: Molecule SHARE ELECTRONS

Covalent bond: 

Covalent bond Nonpolar covalent bond: Equally share electrons Polar covalent bond: Don’t share equally ELECTRONEGATIVITY

Ionic bonds: 

Ionic bonds TRANSFER OF ELECTRONS

Molecules interact with each other: Weak chemical reactions Why?: 

Molecules interact with each other: Weak chemical reactions Why?

Hydrogen bonds: 

Hydrogen bonds What are they? Purpose in life?

The structure of water: 

The structure of water

Van der Waals Reactions: 

Van der Waals Reactions What are they? Purpose in life?

Why is the study of atoms/elements and chemical reactions important for life?: 

Why is the study of atoms/elements and chemical reactions important for life?

Slide29: 

We need structure Molecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organism Structure gives us function!

Slide30: 

http://www.people.virginia.edu/~rjh9u/krebs.html When two ore more elements are rearranged, energy shifts! METABOLISM

Female silkworm moths attract males by emitting chemical signals through the air. A male can detect the signal 100 meters away with the use of its antennae. These antennae has receptor cells that are able to detect the sex attractant. Propose a hypothesis to account for the ability of the male moth to detect a specific molecule in the presence of many other molecules in the air?? How might you design an experiment?: 

Female silkworm moths attract males by emitting chemical signals through the air. A male can detect the signal 100 meters away with the use of its antennae. These antennae has receptor cells that are able to detect the sex attractant. Propose a hypothesis to account for the ability of the male moth to detect a specific molecule in the presence of many other molecules in the air?? How might you design an experiment?

Slide32: 

Your text states that the percentage of naturally occurring elements making up the human body are similar for other organisms.(What are the four most common?) How could you account for this similarity? You have recently received funding to look for potential life on Mars. Using your chemistry knowledge, how might you verify that there is/was life on Mars?

Slide33: 

You are teaching a high school class about the basics of agriculture. You mention that many farmers use crop rotation to maintain a good quality of soil. An interested student asks why?? How might you explain how chemistry affects crop yield and the benefits of crop rotation?

BREAK!: 

BREAK!

Why is carbon so important?: 

Why is carbon so important? LOTS OF IT! Organic chemistry CREATES DIVERSITY HOW?

What’s in the valence/outermost shell?: 

What’s in the valence/outermost shell?

Who carbon interacts with How carbon interacts: 

Who carbon interacts with How carbon interacts CREATE CARBON SKELETONS

Who carbon interacts with How carbon interacts CARBON SKELETONS: 

Who carbon interacts with How carbon interacts CARBON SKELETONS LENGTH BRANCHING DOUBLE BONDS RINGS CREATES DIVERSITY

What are hydrocarbons?: 

What are hydrocarbons? Carbon and hydrogen Nonpolar Fats and Fuel CREATES DIVERSITY

Slide41: 

Diamond Graphite

Who carbon interacts with How carbon interacts CARBON SKELETONS: 

Who carbon interacts with How carbon interacts CARBON SKELETONS LENGTH BRANCHING DOUBLE BONDS RINGS CREATES DIVERSITY

What if it has the same molecular formula?: 

What if it has the same molecular formula? Variation in structure Variation in geometry Spatial variation STRUCTURAL ISOMER GEOMETRIC ISOMER ENANTIOMER

Slide44: 

Enantiomers Spatial variation

DIVERSITY: 

DIVERSITY WHO interacts HOW they interact SPATIAL arrangement Anything else?? Functional groups

Slide46: 

Functional groups Hydroxyl group: -OH, “alcohols” Carbonyl group: C=O, “ketones” or “aldehydes” Carboxyl group: -COOH, “carboxylic acids” Amino group: -NH2, “amines”

CARBON: 

CARBON Carbon is a building block Creates diversity Who How Spatial arrangement Functional groups

Slide48: 

What are we composed of? We have structure How do elements come together to form structure?

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