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Premium member Presentation Transcript CHAPTER - 2: CHAPTER - 2 FOUNDATION OF CURRICULUMSlide 3: The Curriculum Foundation may be defined as those basic forces that influences and shape the minds of curriculum developers and enhance the content and structure of subsequent curriculum.Slide 4: Ideas about Curriculum grow out of the fields of Philosophy, Psychology and Sociology. We will study foundations of curriculum are in following areas: Philosophical/ Ideological Foundations Historical Foundations Psychological Foundations 4. Socio-cultural Foundations1. Philosophical/ Ideological Foundations: 1. Philosophical/ Ideological Foundations “Philosophy is pursuit of Rational thinking and sound Judgments.” Philosophical work can help Curriculum Development and help us to understand. Nature of Educational Objectives The structure or inter-relationship of the Objectives Nature of Curriculum DevelopmentPhilosophical Categories: Philosophical Categories Ontology It concerned with the nature of Reality. It asks WHAT IS REAL? Other discussed areas of Ontology are Existence, Cosmology & nature of Human Beings. Epistemology It is the study of Nature, Scope and Applicability of Knowledge. It asks WHAT IS TRUE? Also discusses HOW WE KNOW? WHAT WE KNOW? 3. Axiology It deals with nature of Values. It asks WHAT IS GOOD? 1. Ethics It concerns With Concepts of Good or Bad. 2. Aesthetics It concerns with Values. It asks WHAT IS BEAUTIFUL?Philosophical Concepts: Philosophical Concepts Idealism Philosophy developed by Plato. It concerns that “World is Virtual and Real” 2. Realism Philosophy described by Aristotle. It concerns that “Everything is based on Matter” 3. Pragmatism Philosophy presented by John Dewey. This gives the idea that “Everything is learned through Practice and Experience. 4. Islam Presented by Islam. Islam considers “The aim of Education is the training of both body and soul. It is not limited.”2. Historical Foundations: 2. Historical Foundations The curriculum designers make plans and policies for the future very easily in the light of History. Types of Historical Foundations 1. Non-Instrumental The spiritual heritage of any nation e.g. beliefs, ideas, ideology of life are included in this aspect. These things can be felt but not seen and are transferred to the next generations through curriculum. 2. Instrumental Aspect The things is an educational system e.g. institutions content, teaching methods, education and training are included in this aspect. These things can be seen, perceived and checked. It is also called Practical Training.3. Psychological Foundations: 3. Psychological Foundations Psychology gives us insight into the child’s development and learning provides various techniques of inquiry for use in curriculum. Principles of Psychology WHEN WHAT WHY HOW A student should be taught.Psychological Sources: Psychological Sources 1. Educational Objectives 2. Students’ Character 3. Learning Process 4. Teaching Methods 5. Evaluation Procedure 6. Human Growth & Development5. Socio-Cultural Foundations: 5. Socio-Cultural Foundations Sociology “Sociology is the study of social relationships with social institutions and society.” Culture “Everything that comes into being with passions and feelings of individuals is called Culture.” (Bob House)Elements of Curriculum: Elements of Curriculum Ideology Technology Social System Economic System Aesthetic System Political System Languages Educational System Foods Views Attitudes Skills Habits Tools Folk StoriesStructure of Elements: Structure of Elements In 1939, Linton has tried to explain the relation of culture with curriculum. He divided the elements of culture into three parts: 1. Universalities The elements on which all the people of society are agreed. For example, Urdu Language is spoken in whole country. 2. Specialties Specialties are such skills adopted by some particular people. But whole society is satisfied with them. For example, a doctor in a colony. 3. Alternatives These are the elements of culture about which individual can exercise their own choice. For examples, works of a scientists.Social Foundation and Curriculum: Social Foundation and Curriculum Culture always becomes the foundation of curricular activities in every society. The relationship between culture and curriculum is described like this: Curriculum is derived from culture. Curriculum is reflection of culture. Curriculum of every culture is different from other culture. Curriculum changes with the changing in values and traditions. The ultimate aim of curriculum is to preserve culture and transfer it to the new generations. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.