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Sea Power and Maritime Affairs: 

Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 22: Global Responsibilities After the Cold War, 1991-2001

Strategic Implications Post-Cold War: 

Strategic Implications Post-Cold War July 31, 1991, START I Gorbachev and Bush: Arsenals to be cut by 25-30% September 27,1991, President Bush announced Soviets no longer pose creditable threat to the U.S. SAC bombers off 24-hour alert Removed all tactical nukes from Navy surface, sub and aircraft

Soviet Collapse December 8, 1991: 

Soviet Collapse December 8, 1991 Boris Yelstin elected President after Soviet collapse. He was re-elected in 1996 and resigned in December of 1999, due to health. Successor of states: Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and Belarus. Ukraine and Kazakhstan became the third and fourth largest nuclear states. Russia joined U.S. in NPT (Nonproliferation Treaty of 1968), demanding other states disarm U.S. and Russia found themselves “comrades in arms” to prevent uncontrolled nuclear weapons in former Soviet Union, North Korea, Pakistan, and India.

North Korea: 

North Korea Early 1993, N. Korea violated signed treaty and prevented inspections of Atomic Energy Agency inspections of nuclear waste sites Possible separation of plutonium from reactors President Kim Il-Sung accused U.S. and S. Korea of “spying” for the purpose of a planned, organized, joint nuclear strike on the North President Sung’s son, Kim Jong-Il, succeeds father to presidency eighteen months later and agrees with President William Clinton to allow inspections for light-water reactors that do not produce plutonium. 31 August 1998, N. Korea launched a ballistic missile over Japan. N. Korea demanded lift of economic sanctions.


India/Pakistan May 1998, India announced detonation of five nuclear weapons in Thar Desert near Pakistan border 1968, India refused to sign NPT 1974, became “nuclear power” U.S. and U.N. plead with Pakistan not to respond to test. Pakistan conducts 6 tests within a month. On 6 June 1998, both countries sign Nonproliferation Treaty of 1968 and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) Little effectboth countries still engage in testing through non-official testing sites

Missile Defense Systems: 

Missile Defense Systems Decades of arms control negotiations, dissolution of the Soviet Union, and in the afterglow of the Cold War, nuclear war seems less plausible to Americans Threat of massive retaliation simply would not deter terrorists, so missile defense becomes topic of the end of the 1990s December 1999, President Yeltsin resigns; Putin acting president until March 2000 elections Clinton and Putin sign 1999 National Missile Defense Act Treaty calling for a missile defense system as soon as technologically feasible, while working to further reduce weapons arsenal


January 2001: President G. W. Bush takes office President Bush decoupled American and Russian strategic interests for first time since Nixon May 1, 2001: Announces intention to build Missile Defense system, intentionally violating the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with Soviet Union in 1972 Further solidifies Russian and Chinese “partnership” July 2001: Successful test. Missile-borne “kill vehicle” intercepts Minuteman II December 2001: Formally withdraw from 1972 ABM Treaty

Post-Gulf War IRAQ: 

Post-Gulf War IRAQ 1990s includes a series of Operations where the Navy, especially the carrier battle group (CVBG) is a primary instrument.


1992 UNSCR 687 stipulated Iraq must provide full disclosure of all aspects of its nuclear, chemical, biological, and long-range missile weapons programs August 26- “No Fly Zone” (NFZ) OPERATION SOUTHERN WATCH December 27- F-16D destroys MiG-25 intruding NFZ


1993 January 13. Thirty-five aircraft from the Kitty Hawk lead strike against 32 Iraqi SAM sites that have continues to target planes patrolling the NFZ. January 17. Three destroyers launch a total of 45 Tomahawk cruise missiles into Zaafaraniyah Nuclear Fabrication Facility; 41 hit their targets. Aegis cruiser launches 23 missiles at Iraqi Intelligence Service Headquarters in Baghdad.


1995 August 17. OPERATION VIGILANT SENTINEL. U.S. sends two CVBGs in response to Iraqi threat on Kuwait and Jordan’s borders. September. Iraq finally declared the existence of two projects to disseminate biological agents from Mirage F-1 and MiG-21 aircraft, yet there is no evidence that the prototype weapons and aircraft were ever destroyed


1996 September 3. OPERATION DESERT STRIKE. Iraqi troops threaten Kurds under protection of Operation Provide Comfort September 4. Clinton extends NFZ to the 33rd parallel


1997 OPERATION NORTHERN WATCH. Enforcement of NFZ over Northern Iraq


1998 July. Iraq seized from the hands of UNSCOM inspectors an Iraqi Air Force document indicating that Iraq misrepresented the expenditure of over 6,000 bombs that may have contained over 700 tons of a chemical agent November 14. Saddam suspends all contact with U.N. inspection teams. “Hide-and-seek” had begun in 1991 December. Saddam stopped all cooperation with the U.N., refusing to let any weapons inspectors into the country December 16. OPERATION DESERT FOX


1999 Nine years after the Gulf War, sanctions remained in place because of Iraq’s behavior No Iraqi biological weapon production records have been given to the UN, besides one referring to a single year


2001 February 16. Air strike on Iraq. August 10. More than 25 strikes this year in response to anti-aircraft fire and missile launches


2002 January 21 and February 28. U.S. and British planes strike anti-air sites in response to fire January 29. President Bush announces, “Iran, Iraq, and North Korea” constitute an “axis of evil.”


Yugoslavia June 27. Fighting starts in Slovenia, spreading to Croatia November 8. Europe places economic blockade on Yugoslavia January. U.N. protection force sent May 22. U.N. recognizes Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia as independent states 1992 1991

1992, Cont….: 

1992, Cont…. March 30. U.N. called for humanitarian aid, economic embargos, and ban on air traffic July 1. Washington called for relief flights that would be multinational and be supported until OPERATION DENY FLIGHT in April 1993 September 22. Yugoslavia expelled from U.N. in response to Milosevic’s atrocities


1993 April 12. OPERATION DENY FLIGHT. NFZ over Bosnia. June 15. OPERATION SHARP GUARD. Adriatic blockade. August 30- September 21. OPERATION DELIBERATE FORCE. NATO bombing offensive. 1995


1998 June 14. OPERATION DETERMINED FALCON. March 24- June 10. NATO war with Yugoslavia. OPERATION DENY FORCE. December 14. Dayton Accords. Ended war in Bosnia. 1999


Somalia 1991 overthrow of presidential dictator, Siad Barre, creates a vacuum in which rival clans fight for power. Widespread starvation ensures.


1992 August 18- December 9. OPERATION PROVIDE RELIEF—145,000 tons of food, medicine, and other vital supplies December 9. OPERATION RESTORE HOPE—Forces deployed to protect delivery of food and supplies June 5. Mogadishu, 24 members of a detachment of Pakistani peacekeepers are killed. October 3. 400 U.S. Army troops ambushed. 18 Americans killed; 77 wounded. October 7. Clinton orders troops to Somalia. 1993


1992 March 24. U.S. withdraws. March 3. OPERATION UNITED SHIELD. U.N. evacuates Somalia, covered by multinational force, including U.S. ships and Marines. 1995

America’s “War on Terrorism”: 

America’s “War on Terrorism” September 11, 2001. World Trade Center / Pentagon attacked. President Bush declares “War on Terrorism” the very next day. Ultimatum to Taliban in Afghanistan to close al-Quaeda training camps and surrender Bin Laden. The state of the Navy: 12 CVBG, 12 ARG, 108 Surface Combatants, 55 SSBN, 3 Marine divisions, 3 Marine Air Wings. 2 carriers present in Persian Gulf.

U.S. Strike Assets Used: 

U.S. Strike Assets Used 15 U.S. long-range bombers, B-1, B-52 25 Carrier Attack A/C, F-14s, F/A-18s Tomahawks, Aegis cruisers, Aegis destroyers, and Los Angeles - class submarines. Intent of campaign is for the Northern Alliance to be able to take offensive- 15,000 troops. Taliban Ground: 40,000 fighters No Taliban fighter aircraft successfully launched

The Continued Campaign…: 

The Continued Campaign… By November 13, the Northern Alliance has taken the offensive Northern Alliances’ multiple tribes announce intention to form inclusive government. November 25. Marines/Special Forces ashore. December 4-16. Tora Bora. Victory in 11 days. December 6. New Afghan Government. By December 17, two million lbs of bombs expended in multiple air strikes against Taliban. December 22. Hamid Karzai interim Prime Minster of Afghanistan. As of January 2002, Afghanistan has an interim government and multi-national ground force, naval forces, and combat air patrols all on station.

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