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Debra Lieberman, Ph.D. University of California, Santa Barbara email@example.com October 31, 2005 More than thumb exercise: More than thumb exercise Every minute, two people in the US die of heart disease Up until now, screens have encouraged a sedentary lifestyle, but now they are compelling us to get up and move Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is an exertion interface that is a: : Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is an exertion interface that is a: Game Social activity and community Dance and performance platform Workout and weight loss tool Classroom and workplace activityThe appeal of DDR: The appeal of DDR Challenging goal Gets more difficult as skills improve Perform for others – to be admired Technical skill Artistic/expressive skill Attract potential dates Social, fun, music, movementIncreasingly used for fitness: Increasingly used for fitness Workout – cardio benefits Weight loss Dance skills People who play DDR for fitness report the highest enjoyment of the game Accessible to children, but cool for everyone: Accessible to children, but cool for everyone On a medium that kids see as theirs Music styles appeal to various age groups Mario DDR for Nintendo Game Cube reaches younger childrenHow DDR is implemented: How DDR is implemented Public places: Arcade, dance club, display window facing street Home School gym, PE class, classroom Fitness club Health center DDR and dance pad research: DDR and dance pad research Uses, gratifications Effects – self-concepts, learning, social Feasibility as a workout tool Effects on fitness, motivation to exercise Transfer from game to other environments First, look at effects of the activity itself Effects of physical activity: Effects of physical activity Cardio and fitness benefits Reduces anxiety and stress Sensory motor learning Increases blood flow to brain Thinking skills, creativity, attention Academic performanceEffects of dance: Effects of dance Physical coordination Facilitates language development Enhances creativity Enhances social development Improves intellectual functions and academic progress in reading, math At school, fosters positive attitudes toward schoolEffects of DDR: Effects of DDR Increases heart rate and cardiovascular exertion; keeps heart rate in target zone Fitness, cardio health Weight loss Coordination, perceptual skill, dance skill, self-confidence, self-esteem (more)Effects of DDR: Effects of DDR Improved reading skills (receptive coding) for poor readers with ADHD, in grade 6 Due to the rhythmic movement of dancing and rehearsal of visual skills Social interaction, friendships Strong evidence that social relationships are good for healthUCSB study of DDR players: UCSB study of DDR players 29 DDR players, ages 17-21 14 female, 15 male 10 play arcade only (4F; 6M) 19 play console and arcade (10F; 9M) Arcade only average 4.0 hrs/wk arcade Console and arcade average 5.6 hrs/wk console, 1.8 hrs/wk arcade Reasons for playing DDR (mean ratings, scale 1-7): Reasons for playing DDR (mean ratings, scale 1-7) Enjoyable, fun game 6.0 Like playing with other people 5.8 Music 5.6 Workout 5.0 Dancing 4.7 Making new friends who also like DDR 4.7 Like the challenge 4.6 Being admired by others for my skill 4.2 Enjoy playing by myself 3.9Gender differences (14 women, 15 men): Gender differences (14 women, 15 men) Men more likely to say they play DDR so others with admire their skill Men report more time playing alone in arcades than women Men more likely to say they get a good workout with DDR in arcades Men report higher technical skill and women report more physical difficulty Arcade players (4 women, 6 men): Arcade players (4 women, 6 men) Spend $22 per week at arcade (Range is $4 to $105 per week) Make more friends at arcade than do console players at home Rate their DDR skill and their physical strength higher than console players do Players highly involved in fitness and workout (4 women, 9 men): Players highly involved in fitness and workout (4 women, 9 men) Give the highest enjoyment ratings 6.5 Say they are never bored by DDR Enjoy playing alone, more than others Also report making the most friends who share an interest in DDROther dance exergames: Other dance exergames Pump It Up: Exceed In the Groove DanceAlong Para Para Paradise Mario, Sesame Street, DisneyGeneration FIT, In the Groove: Generation FIT, In the Groove Peer mentors – at-risk children In the classroom Rotate small groups to pad Improves behavior, achievement Self-esteem and involvement of mentors Workplace version for break timeGeneration FIT – Effects: Generation FIT – Effects Absenteeism dropped for mentors Growth in social skills Improved leadership skills, confidence Improved fitness, speed of mile run More enthusiasm for sports, dance Example of transferOther exergames: Other exergames EyeToy Antigrav Yourself!Fitness Shadow Boxer Powergrid Kilowatt (weight training) Kilowatt Sport (strain gauge sensors detect pressure against a force stick) GameWheels for wheelchairsOther exergames, kinetic video games: Other exergames, kinetic video games Qui Qui’s Giant Bounce Vision-based game interface, using intuitive gestures (Hamalainen & Turkki, 2005) www.webcamgames.com Breakout for Two (Mueller, Agamanolis, & Picard, 2003) www.exertioninterfaces.com Supports social interaction in sports Networked, like a teleconferenceVirtual sports and activities: Virtual sports and activities 2002 FIFA World Cup Football Stadium (control a soccer player with a floor mat) Kick and Kick The FlyGuy (virtual hang-gliding) Impact TV Virku – virtual fitness center (bikes) The Golf Launch PadExertion interfaces: Exertion interfaces PingPongPlus (augmented table) AR2 (air-hockey table) KiRo (robotic foosball table) Walk the Dog (treadmill) Cyclescore; Bikeovision; Kilowatt Neoracer; Cateye Interactive Bike Networked physical interfaces: Networked physical interfaces Telephonic Arm Wrestling Virtual Tug-ofWar Snowwars (virtual snowball fight) NetGym (exercise bikes) Netathalon Future exergame technology: Future exergame technology Wireless, mobile computers support outdoor games Cell phones Wearable computers Tablet computers Quotes about DDR: Quotes about DDR “Active games should never be a substitute for active playing outside.” “It’s the best of both worlds – playing video games and being active.” “I love the sense of community it inspires.” “It encourages more kids to be fit.”Future research on DDR: Future research on DDR Developmental differences Transfer of skills from game to other environments Motivation to be physically active New interfaces, virtual worlds Upper body workouts Improved workout modeThank you!: Thank you! Contact me: Debra Lieberman firstname.lastname@example.org Read more [Available in December]: http://www.comm.ucsb.edu/faculty/ lieberman/exergames.htm You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.