Debra Lieberman

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Dance Dance Revolution: The Most Researched Serious Game Ever. Why, and What Have We Learned? : 

Dance Dance Revolution: The Most Researched Serious Game Ever. Why, and What Have We Learned? Debra Lieberman, Ph.D. University of California, Santa Barbara lieberma@isber.ucsb.edu October 31, 2005

More than thumb exercise: 

More than thumb exercise Every minute, two people in the US die of heart disease Up until now, screens have encouraged a sedentary lifestyle, but now they are compelling us to get up and move

Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is an exertion interface that is a: : 

Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is an exertion interface that is a: Game Social activity and community Dance and performance platform Workout and weight loss tool Classroom and workplace activity

The appeal of DDR: 

The appeal of DDR Challenging goal Gets more difficult as skills improve Perform for others – to be admired Technical skill Artistic/expressive skill Attract potential dates Social, fun, music, movement

Increasingly used for fitness: 

Increasingly used for fitness Workout – cardio benefits Weight loss Dance skills People who play DDR for fitness report the highest enjoyment of the game

Accessible to children, but cool for everyone: 

Accessible to children, but cool for everyone On a medium that kids see as theirs Music styles appeal to various age groups Mario DDR for Nintendo Game Cube reaches younger children

How DDR is implemented: 

How DDR is implemented Public places: Arcade, dance club, display window facing street Home School gym, PE class, classroom Fitness club Health center

DDR and dance pad research: 

DDR and dance pad research Uses, gratifications Effects – self-concepts, learning, social Feasibility as a workout tool Effects on fitness, motivation to exercise Transfer from game to other environments First, look at effects of the activity itself

Effects of physical activity: 

Effects of physical activity Cardio and fitness benefits Reduces anxiety and stress Sensory motor learning Increases blood flow to brain Thinking skills, creativity, attention Academic performance

Effects of dance: 

Effects of dance Physical coordination Facilitates language development Enhances creativity Enhances social development Improves intellectual functions and academic progress in reading, math At school, fosters positive attitudes toward school

Effects of DDR: 

Effects of DDR Increases heart rate and cardiovascular exertion; keeps heart rate in target zone Fitness, cardio health Weight loss Coordination, perceptual skill, dance skill, self-confidence, self-esteem (more)

Effects of DDR: 

Effects of DDR Improved reading skills (receptive coding) for poor readers with ADHD, in grade 6 Due to the rhythmic movement of dancing and rehearsal of visual skills Social interaction, friendships Strong evidence that social relationships are good for health

UCSB study of DDR players: 

UCSB study of DDR players 29 DDR players, ages 17-21 14 female, 15 male 10 play arcade only (4F; 6M) 19 play console and arcade (10F; 9M) Arcade only average 4.0 hrs/wk arcade Console and arcade average 5.6 hrs/wk console, 1.8 hrs/wk arcade

Reasons for playing DDR (mean ratings, scale 1-7): 

Reasons for playing DDR (mean ratings, scale 1-7) Enjoyable, fun game 6.0 Like playing with other people 5.8 Music 5.6 Workout 5.0 Dancing 4.7 Making new friends who also like DDR 4.7 Like the challenge 4.6 Being admired by others for my skill 4.2 Enjoy playing by myself 3.9

Gender differences (14 women, 15 men): 

Gender differences (14 women, 15 men) Men more likely to say they play DDR so others with admire their skill Men report more time playing alone in arcades than women Men more likely to say they get a good workout with DDR in arcades Men report higher technical skill and women report more physical difficulty

Arcade players (4 women, 6 men): 

Arcade players (4 women, 6 men) Spend $22 per week at arcade (Range is $4 to $105 per week) Make more friends at arcade than do console players at home Rate their DDR skill and their physical strength higher than console players do

Players highly involved in fitness and workout (4 women, 9 men): 

Players highly involved in fitness and workout (4 women, 9 men) Give the highest enjoyment ratings 6.5 Say they are never bored by DDR Enjoy playing alone, more than others Also report making the most friends who share an interest in DDR

Other dance exergames: 

Other dance exergames Pump It Up: Exceed In the Groove DanceAlong Para Para Paradise Mario, Sesame Street, Disney

Generation FIT, In the Groove: 

Generation FIT, In the Groove Peer mentors – at-risk children In the classroom Rotate small groups to pad Improves behavior, achievement Self-esteem and involvement of mentors Workplace version for break time

Generation FIT – Effects: 

Generation FIT – Effects Absenteeism dropped for mentors Growth in social skills Improved leadership skills, confidence Improved fitness, speed of mile run More enthusiasm for sports, dance Example of transfer

Other exergames: 

Other exergames EyeToy Antigrav Yourself!Fitness Shadow Boxer Powergrid Kilowatt (weight training) Kilowatt Sport (strain gauge sensors detect pressure against a force stick) GameWheels for wheelchairs

Other exergames, kinetic video games: 

Other exergames, kinetic video games Qui Qui’s Giant Bounce Vision-based game interface, using intuitive gestures (Hamalainen & Turkki, 2005) www.webcamgames.com Breakout for Two (Mueller, Agamanolis, & Picard, 2003) www.exertioninterfaces.com Supports social interaction in sports Networked, like a teleconference

Virtual sports and activities: 

Virtual sports and activities 2002 FIFA World Cup Football Stadium (control a soccer player with a floor mat) Kick and Kick The FlyGuy (virtual hang-gliding) Impact TV Virku – virtual fitness center (bikes) The Golf Launch Pad

Exertion interfaces: 

Exertion interfaces PingPongPlus (augmented table) AR2 (air-hockey table) KiRo (robotic foosball table) Walk the Dog (treadmill) Cyclescore; Bikeovision; Kilowatt Neoracer; Cateye Interactive Bike

Networked physical interfaces: 

Networked physical interfaces Telephonic Arm Wrestling Virtual Tug-ofWar Snowwars (virtual snowball fight) NetGym (exercise bikes) Netathalon

Future exergame technology: 

Future exergame technology Wireless, mobile computers support outdoor games Cell phones Wearable computers Tablet computers

Quotes about DDR: 

Quotes about DDR “Active games should never be a substitute for active playing outside.” “It’s the best of both worlds – playing video games and being active.” “I love the sense of community it inspires.” “It encourages more kids to be fit.”

Future research on DDR: 

Future research on DDR Developmental differences Transfer of skills from game to other environments Motivation to be physically active New interfaces, virtual worlds Upper body workouts Improved workout mode

Thank you!: 

Thank you! Contact me: Debra Lieberman lieberma@isber.ucsb.edu Read more [Available in December]: http://www.comm.ucsb.edu/faculty/ lieberman/exergames.htm

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