Nelson Mandela: Nelson Mandela By Sheldon Ennis-Mitchell January 23,2012 Period 7 Web Design His Early Years: His Early Years Nelson Mandela was born on July 18, 1918 in Mvezo, South Africa. His great-grandfather was the king of the Thembu people, so he was born into royalty as a young boy. However he never became king because colonial authorities removed his great-grandfather as a ruler, and they moved his colony into Qunu. Mandela had 12 other siblings between 3 other mothers. His childhood nickname was Rolihlahla which means “to pull a branch of a tree” or “troublemaker”. His Early Years contd.: His Early Years contd. Mandela was the first member within his family to attend school. His teacher Miss Mdingane gave him the English name Nelson. His father passed away when he was only nine years old from tuberculosis. With his mother no where to be found, the new leader on the throne his father had, Jongintaba Dalindyebo became Mandela’s new guardian. Schooling Success: Schooling Success The Start of His Political Career: The Start of His Political Career The start of Mandela’s political career began with him and Oliver Tambo starting their own law firm . Mahatma Ghandi was the person who influenced Mandela’s decision in starting a law firm. His purpose in his early job was to assist blacks who couldn’t afford proper representation. Initially committed to nonviolent resistance, Mandela and 150 others were arrested on 5 December 1956 and charged with treason. The marathon Treason Trial of 1956–1961 followed, with all defendants receiving acquittals His Arrest And Trial : His Arrest And Trial On 5 August 1962 Mandela was arrested after living on the run for seventeen months, and was imprisoned in the Johannesburg Fort. The arrest was made possible because the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) allegedly tipped off the security police as to Mandela's whereabouts and disguise. Three days later, the charges of leading workers to strike in 1961 and leaving the country illegally were read to him during a court appearance. On 25 October 1962, Mandela was sentenced to five years in prison. He closed his statement with these words: "During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to the struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die." He was still found guilty and was sent to prison. His Prison Sentence: His Prison Sentence Mandela was imprisoned on Robben Island where he remained for the next eighteen of his twenty-seven years in prison. While in jail, his reputation grew and he became widely known as the most significant black leader in South Africa. He earned his degree in law while he was imprisoned. President P.W. Bota gave Mandela a small plea bargain in order to be set free, but he refused. President Bota died a couple years later and The new president, Frederik de Clerk, released Mandela in February 1990. Shaking Hands with President de Clerk: Shaking Hands with President de Clerk Mandela’s Presidency (1994-1999): Mandela’s Presidency (1994-1999) South Africa's first multi-racial elections in which full enfranchisement was granted were held on 27 April 1994. The ANC won 62% of the votes in the election, and Mandela, as leader of the ANC, was inaugurated on 10 May 1994 as the country's first black President, with the National Party's de Klerk as his first deputy and Thabo Mbeki as the second in the Government of National Unity. As President from May 1994 until June 1999, Mandela presided over the transition from minority rule and apartheid, winning international respect for his advocacy of national and international reconciliation. Mandela encouraged black South Africans to get behind the previously hated Springbrooks (the South African national rugby team) as South Africa hosted the 1995 Rugby World Cup.