Carboxylic Acids

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Carboxylic Acids: 

Carboxylic Acids The COOH bond

Areas Specified by OCR: 

Areas Specified by OCR Formation of salts Esterification Hydrolysis of Esters

Review of Carboxylic Acids from AS: 

Review of Carboxylic Acids from AS Carboxylic Acids contain the following functional group

Review of Carboxylic Acids from AS: 

Review of Carboxylic Acids from AS They are named by adding –oic acid onto the end of the carbon skeleton. The –COOH group is the section responsible for the chemistry. The substituents are named as in other aliphatic compounds The carbon in the –COOH group is numbered carbon 1.

Review of Carboxylic Acids from AS: 

Review of Carboxylic Acids from AS Examples of Carboxylic Acids

Synthesis: 

Synthesis From 1˚ Alcohols. Using a suitable oxidising agent. RCH2OH + 2[O] → RCOOH Conditions are reflux. Reagent potassium dichromate (VI) K2Cr2O7/H+

Physical Properties: 

Physical Properties Dominated by the ease with which they form hydrogen bonds. This raises the melting point of ethanoic acid to 17˚C. Much higher other atoms with the same RMM. Mix freely with water due to H-bonding ability

Dimer Formation: 

Dimer Formation Two molecules of a carboxylic acid can hydrogen bond together. This seemingly increases (doubles) the RMM. Only happens in a non-polar solvent

Acidic Properties of Carboxylic Acids: 

Acidic Properties of Carboxylic Acids All carboxylic acids ionise in water. To some degree The presence of the carbonyl group enhances this property

Acidic Properties: 

Acidic Properties It is the release of the hydrogen ion (proton) to the water molecule This forms the acid particles H+ or H3O+

Reactions due to the acidic nature of carboxylic acids: 

Reactions due to the acidic nature of carboxylic acids This release of protons when in water gives the solution a pH of less than 7. The usual reactions of acids are present. The conditions for all these reactions is room temperature.

Neutralisation: 

Neutralisation Neutralisation with alkali (e.g. sodium hydroxide) CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) → CH3COO– Na+(aq) + H2O(l) Or more simply as: CH3COOH(aq) + OH-(aq) → CH3COO– (aq) + H2O(l) The CH3COO- is often called the ethanoate ion.

Neutralisation: 

Neutralisation With a base such as copper (II) oxide. 2CH3COOH(aq) + CuO(aq) → (CH3COO– )2 Cu2+(aq) + H2O(l) or more simply as: 2CH3COOH(aq) + O2-(aq) → CH3COO– (aq) + H2O(l)

Neutralisation: 

Neutralisation Reaction with a moderately reactive metal (such as magnesium), sodium is too dangerous. 2CH3COOH(aq) + Mg(s) → 2CH3COO– (aq) + Mg2+(aq)+ H2O(l)

Neutralisation: 

Neutralisation Release of carbon dioxide with any carbonate. 2CH3COOH(aq) + CO32-(aq) → 2CH3COO– (aq) + CO2(g)+ H2O(l) Or including the metal 2CH3COOH(aq) + CaCO3(s) → 2CH3COO– (aq) +Ca2+(aq) + CO2(g)+ H2O(l) These are all need to know specified by the board.

Carboxylic Acids as Proton Donors : 

Carboxylic Acids as Proton Donors There are many definitions of what makes an acid an acid. Ranging back to ancient times when anything with oxygen in was thought to be an acid to the modern Lewis acid theory.

Carboxylic Acids as Proton Donors : 

Carboxylic Acids as Proton Donors The most commonly accepted theory is that of Brønsted and Lowry who came up with the theory that: ……acids are proton donors and bases are proton acceptors……

Acids as Proton Donors: 

Acids as Proton Donors The acid is acting as a proton donor. Giving away its proton (H+) Water is the proton acceptor (acting as a base). CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l) → CH3COO-(aq)+ H3O+(aq)

Acids as Proton Doners: 

Acids as Proton Doners The carboxylate anion helps in the understanding of the carboxyl group to release a proton. The extra negative charge can be on either oxygen. It is partially delocalised and adds to the stability of the anion This extra stability increased the chances of it being formed.

Esterification reactions: 

Esterification reactions An ester is formed by heating a carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst – normally concentrated sulphuric acid. You do not need to know this mechanism

Naming of Esters: 

Naming of Esters Esters are named from the acid and alcohol stem.

Naming of Esters: 

Naming of Esters the alcohol stem comes at the start of the ester name the acid stem provides the second part of the name the name of the ester usually ends with –anoate. The previous ester is ethyl ethanoate.

Uses of Esters: 

Uses of Esters Esters can be used as Adhesives Perfumes Flavourings painkillers.

Some Esters and uses: 

Some Esters and uses

Hydrolysis of Esters: 

Hydrolysis of Esters Hydrolysis means the break-up of a molecule using water. Esters can be hydrolysed by both acids and alkalis.

Hydrolysis of Esters: 

Hydrolysis of Esters Alkali hydrolysis gives the carboxylate salt. Acid hydrolysis leads to equilibrium, the yield of products is never 100% Alkaline hydrolysis breaks up the ester completely.

Hydrolysis of Esters: 

Hydrolysis of Esters A more accurate way of representing this could be:

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