Understanding Jihad: A Muslim's Perspective : Understanding Jihad: A Muslim's Perspective Notre Dame University, Perth – Western Australia
October 20, 2003
Presented to: Colleges of Law, Philosophy & Theology, Arts & Letters
Presented by: Yahya A. Ibrahim
( firstname.lastname@example.org ) Who is Shaykhul Islam Ibnul Qayyim : Who is Shaykhul Islam Ibnul Qayyim He was born on Safar 7, 691 AH (1292 CE), in the village of Zar`, to the south-east of Damascus
His most notable teacher was Ibn Taymiyyah along with 100’s of others
Ibn ul Qayyim wrote more than one hundred and sixty books in various areas of Islam.
Ibn ul Qayyim had numerous students. Some of the more reputable among them are the following:
Al Hafidh Abul Faraj ibn Rajab Al Hafidh Ismail ibn Kathir THE TYPES OF JIHAD : THE TYPES OF JIHAD By Imaam ibn al-Qayyim (d.751H) [The sayings of Imaam ibn al-Qayyim are from his book Madaarij us-Salikeen unless otherwise stated]
Imaam ibn al-Qayyim said: "Jihad is of four main types (that are to be divided into sub-catagories):
1.. Jihad an-Nafs (one's own self)
2.. Jihad ash-Shaytaan (Satan)
3.. Jihad al-Kuffar (the Rejecters of Faith) and al-Munafiqeen (the hypocrites)
4.. Jihad ahlu (the people of) ath-Dhulm (injustice), al-Bid'ah (innovation) and al-Munkaraat (sin and evil)" 1. Jihad an-Nafs : 1. Jihad an-Nafs "Jihad an-Nafs (one's striving against his desires) is also four types:
1. Firstly: Striving hard to learn the true guidance and the religion of truth, meaning Islamic Monotheism (Tawheed), without which the soul will have no success or happiness in this life or the Last Life. When the Nafs (soul) does not acquire knowledge of the religion, it will be miserable in both places of dwelling (this life and the next).
2. Secondly: One's striving hard to implement what he has learnt. Knowledge without implementation will not be beneficial and may even bring about harm. 1. Jihad an-Nafs: 1. Jihad an-Nafs 3. Thirdly: Striving to deliver the Message and teach it to those who do not have knowledge of it. Otherwise one will be among those who hide the Guidance and the Clear Proofs that Allah has sent down. Such are those whose knowledge will neither bring about benefit to them nor safety from Allah's punishment.
4. Fourthly: Striving to be patient in the face of hardships of conducting Da'wah (inviting mankind) unto Allah, while disregarding the threat of being harmed by other people and the enemies of Islam, all the while striving to endure all these difficulties." 2. Jihad ash-Shaytaan : 2. Jihad ash-Shaytaan Imaam ibn al-Qayyim said: "There are two types of Jihad ash-Shaytaan (Satan):
1. First: Jihad against him to disregard the misgivings and doubts he raises to invalidate Imaan (faith).
2. Second: Jihad against him by ignoring what he tempts one with erroneous intentions and desires. Achieving certainty (concerning Faith) comes after practicing the first type of this Jihad, while successfully observing patience is the result of practicing the second type. Allah says what means:
"And We made from among them (children of Israel) leaders, giving guidance under Our Command, when they were patient and used to believe with certainty in Our Ayaat (Signs, Verses etc.)" [32:24] 2. Jihad ash-Shaytaan: 2. Jihad ash-Shaytaan Verse regarding Jihad ash-Shaytaan:
إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ فَاتَّخِذُوهُ عَدُوًّا إِنَّمَا يَدْعُو حِزْبَهُ لِيَكُونُوا مِنْ أَصْحَابِ السَّعِيرِ
“Surely, Shaytaan is an enemy to you, so treat his as an enemy" [35:6]
The Messenger of Allah said: "The example of the Mujahid (who performs Jihad) in the Cause of Allah, and only Allah knows who is truly performing Jihad in His Cause, is the example of he who is both a Saa'im (fasting) and a Qaa'im (standing up in voluntary prayers)." [Al-Bukhari] 3. Jihad al-Kuffar wal-Munafiqeen: 3. Jihad al-Kuffar wal-Munafiqeen Imaam ibn al-Qayyim said: "As for Jihad al-Kuffar wal-Munafiqeen, they are also four types:
1. with the heart,
3. wealth and
4. one's self (body).
Jihad al-Kuffar is usually practiced with the hand, while Jihad al-Munafiqeen is usually practiced by the tongue (by refuting them and exposing their misguided ways, etc.)" 3. Jihad al-Kuffar wal-Munafiqeen: 3. Jihad al-Kuffar wal-Munafiqeen What is a Kafir?
A person who does not exercise his faculties of reason, intellect, and intuition to recognise his Lord and Creator and misuses his freedom of choice by choosing to deny God. Such a person becomes a rejector of Faith - in the language of Islam, a kaafir. Kufr literally means 'to cover' or 'to conceal'. The person who denies God is called a kaafir (concealor) because he conceals by his disbelief what is in his nature and soul - because his nature and soul is instinctively to submit to God. His whole body, every limb, bone, cell submits to the Will of God - fulfilling the duty that has been assigned to it. But for this person, his own nature has become concealed from his eyes and he thinks and acts in total disregard of it. Do Muslims seek to Kill those who are not Muslim?: Do Muslims seek to Kill those who are not Muslim? Chapter 60 Verses 7-9
Perhaps Allah will make friendship between you and those whom you hold as enemies. And Allah has power (over all things), and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Allah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion and did not drive you out of your homes. Verily, Allah loves those who deal with equity.
It is only as regards those who fought against you on account of religion, and have driven you out of your homes, and helped to drive you out, that Allah forbids you to befriend them. And whosoever will befriend them, then such are the Zalimun (wrong-doers those who disobey Allah). 3. Jihad al-Kuffar wal-Munafiqeen: 3. Jihad al-Kuffar wal-Munafiqeen Some verses regarding Jihad al-Kuffar wal-Munafiqeen:
فَلَا تُطِعِ الْكَافِرِينَ وَجَاهِدْهُم بِهِ جِهَادًا كَبِيرًا
"But strive hard against them (ie. the Kuffar), (by preaching to them the Quran) with the utmost endeavor, with it (ie. the Qur'an)" [25:52]
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ جَاهِدِالْكُفَّارَ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ وَاغْلُظْ عَلَيْهِمْ
"O Prophet! Perform Jihad against the disbelievers and the hypocrites and be severe against them" [66:9] 3. Jihad al-Kuffar wal-Munafiqeen: 3. Jihad al-Kuffar wal-Munafiqeen يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ مَا لَكُمْ إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمُ انفِرُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ اثَّاقَلْتُمْ إِلَى الأَرْضِ أَرَضِيتُم بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا مِنَ الآخِرَةِ فَمَا مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فِي الآخِرَةِ إِلاَّ قَلِيلٌ
"O you who believe! What is the matter with you, that, when you are asked to go forth in the Cause of Allah, you cling heavily to the earth? Do you prefer the life of this world to the Hereafter? But little is the comfort of this life, as compared with the Hereafter" [at-Tauba 9:38] 3. Jihad al-Kuffar wal-Munafiqeen: 3. Jihad al-Kuffar wal-Munafiqeen 1. "…We decreed upon the Children of Israel that whoever kills a soul - unless for a soul or for corruption [done] in the land - it is as if he had slain mankind entirely. And, whoever saves one, it is as if he had saved mankind entirely." [Qur'an, 5:32]
2. "And fight, in the path of Allah, those who fight you…" [Qur'an, 2:190]
3. "Among mankind is he whose speech impresses you in worldly life, and he calls Allah to witness as to what is in his heart, yet he is the fiercest of opponents. And, when he goes away, he strives throughout the land to cause corruption therein, and to destroy crops and lives. And Allah does not love corruption." [Qur'an, 2:204-5]
4. "A woman entered the Fire on account of a cat, which she tied up, neither feeding it, nor letting it eat [for itself] from the vermin of the earth, until it died, and as a result she entered the Fire [of Hell].“ (Bukhari and Muslim)
5. "Do not take something with a soul as a target.” Muslim 3. Jihad al-Kuffar wal-Munafiqeen: 3. Jihad al-Kuffar wal-Munafiqeen Ibn `Abbas says: The Messenger of Allah, when dispatching his troops, would tell them, "….Do not behave treacherously, nor misappropriate war-booty, nor mutilate [those whom you kill], nor kill children, Do not kill a child, nor a woman, nor an old man, nor obliterate a stream, nor cut a tree.”
Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmed 4. Jihad Against those who Practice Injustice, Innovations and Sin : 4. Jihad Against those who Practice Injustice, Innovations and Sin Imaam ibn al-Qayyim said: "There are three types of this Jihad.
1. First, with the hand, when able to do so.
2. But when one is unable, then he should revert to Jihad with the tongue,
3. and if again unable, then with the heart."
Some Ahaadeeth regarding this type of Jihad
Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri narrated that the Messenger of Allah said: "He amongst you who witnesses an evil, let him change (remove, stop) it with his hand. If unable, then with his tongue, and if unable, then with his heart, and this indeed is the weakest Imaan." [Muslim] 4. Jihad Against those who Practice Injustice, Innovations and Sin: 4. Jihad Against those who Practice Injustice, Innovations and Sin Imaam ibn al-Qayyim says, "These are thirteen types of Jihad, and he who dies without performing in Jihad or encouraging himself to perform Jihad, will die on a way (method, part, manner etc) of hypocrisy" Contact Us: Contact Us Yahya Ibrahim
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