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Management of Difficult Cases of Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: 

Management of Difficult Cases of Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

Bladder Cancer: 

Bladder Cancer Recurrence is common Progression is uncommon Progression is more important than recurrence There are indicators of recurrence and progression

Slide3: 

Clinical Prognostic Markers Risk of recurrence of Ta/T1 TCC by tumor characteristics Allard et al, Br J Urol 81:692, 1998 ATC = 0 ATC = 3 ATC = 2 ATC = 1

Slide4: 

Progression at 3 years after TUR N = 207 p < 0.001 Heney et al, J Urol 130:1083, 1983 4% 30%

Slide5: 

T1 Progression by Stage and Grade Holmang J Urol 157:800, 1997

Slide6: 

Risk of Death from Bladder Cancer by Presenting Stage 20 year follow-up, Rx with cystoscopy ± thiotepa Holmang et al, J Urol 153:1823, 1995 11% 30%

Adjuvant Therapy 2005: 

Adjuvant Therapy 2005 Cystoscopic surveillance Repeat TUR Perioperative chemotherapy Intravesical therapy BCG BCG + Interferon Chemotherapy Cystectomy

Multiple Recurrences: 

Multiple Recurrences Jan 2004 -63 y/o man with multifocal Ta G2 TCC Perioperative treatment with mitomycin April 2004 – 5 small Ta G2 TCC BCG x 6 weeks July 2004 – 4 small Ta G2 TCC BCG + interferon x 3 weeks Oct 2004 – 8 small, Ta G2 TCC Mitomycin 40 mg/20 ml x 6 Jan 2005 – 6 small, Ta G2 TCC Doxorubicin 50 mg/50 ml x 6 April 2005 – 4 small, Ta G2 TCC Dr. Lamm?

Refractory G2, Ta TCC: 

Refractory G2, Ta TCC We desperately need more drugs! Cystectomy may otherwise be required Look for and remove carcinogens Diet and life style changes Oncovite 2 tabs BID (Mission Pharm) New options: immediate gemcitabine 1000mg/25cc Improved BCG immunotherapy

Prevention: Smoking cessation, carcinogen avoidance, nutrition: 

Prevention: Smoking cessation, carcinogen avoidance, nutrition 2-fold risk for bladder cancer associated with increased DNA adducts in smokers Mutagenesis. 18:445, 2003 Intake of fruit and vegetables in smokers decreased DNA adducts Carcinogenesis. 23:861, 2002 286 Ta, T1 patients: Quitting  recurrence-free (P<.003) and progression-free (P<.001) survival J Urol 161:172, 1999

Bladder Cancer Chemoprevention: 

Bladder Cancer Chemoprevention Vitamins: A, B6, C, D, E, folic acid, C+K3 A: Sporn’79, Moon’83; B6: Byar’77, C: Schlegel’75, D: Konety’01; E: Michaud’00; C+K3: Gilloteaux’98; A,B6,C, E: Lamm, ‘94 Allium sativum (Garlic) Lau’86, Riggs’97, Lamm’01 NSAIDS, Cox 2 inhibitors Goodwin’81, Waddell’83, Earnest’92, Moon’92 DMFO Messing’88, Boone’90, Kellog’92, Loprinzi’96 Oltipraz Wattenberg & Buening’86, Moon’94, Kensler’95 Selenium Helzlsouer’89 Soy protein, Green Tea Mokhtar’88, Kemberling ‘03

Slide12: 

Kaplan Meier Estimate of 5 Year Tumor Free Rate Lamm DL, J Urol 151: 21-26, 1994 Months After Registration Percent Tumor Free 40,000u Vitamin A, 100mg B6, 2gm C, 400mg E: "Oncovite" p=0.0014 RDA Vitamins Multi Vitamin Mega Vitamin (N=30) (N=35)

Improved BCG Administration: 

Improved BCG Administration Low grade tumors respond less favorably Minimize tumor burden with complete resection and immediate chemotherapy Immune status: check the PPD; add percutaneous BCG if negative Weekly BCG x3 every 6 months, reducing dose 1/3, 1/10, 1/30, 1/100th

T1 TCC: 

T1 TCC 56 y/o man with T1, G3 TCC and CIS BCG x 6 weeks Biopsy 6 weeks later demonstrates T1 G3 TCC Dr. Theodorescu?

What are this man’s chances of progressing? ...or for harboring invasive disease already?: 

What are this man’s chances of progressing? ...or for harboring invasive disease already? After BCG failure each additional course of BCG carries a 7% actuarial risk of progression Catalona, 1987 In patients with T1G3 cancers, multiple tumors and/or presence of CIS are major determinants of upstaging at radical cystectomy Masood, 2004 N=17 (single tumor, no CIS): upstaging in 1 (6%) N=13 (mult. Tumor +/- CIS): upstaging in 7 (55%)

There is a Survival Advantage in patients with sTCC treated with “early” cystectomy: 

There is a Survival Advantage in patients with sTCC treated with “early” cystectomy N=307 high risk sTCC treated with TURBT+BCG 90 underwent cystectomy for recurrent tumor: 35 superficial and 55 invasive recurrence Of 35 with sTCC, 92% and 56% survived who underwent cystectomy <2 yrs after initial BCG therapy vs. >2 yrs Multivariate analysis:  survival in patients who underwent earlier cystectomy for sTCC relapse Herr, 2001 Months Follow Up

Defining BCG refractory sTCC: 

Defining BCG refractory sTCC 93 patients received a 6-week induction course of BCG Evaluated for response after 3 and 6 months 57% were negative for tumor at 3 months 80% of the patients were tumor-free at 6 mo Tumor-free interval during 24 mo followup best predicted by response to BCG at 6 mo Herr, 2003

Excellent Prognosis of sTCC with cystectomy for sTCC: 

Excellent Prognosis of sTCC with cystectomy for sTCC 5 and 10 year cancer-specific survival rates as a function of pathological tumor stage: Amling 1994 pT0 (43) 80% and 66% pTa (11) 88% and 75% pTis (19) 100% and 92% pT1 (91) 76% and 62% Stein 2001 pT0, pTa, pTis (N0): (208) 89% and 85% pT1 (N0): (194) 83% and 78 %

Practical approach to T1G3 after 1st BCG failure: 

Practical approach to T1G3 after 1st BCG failure Multiple tumors or CIS (original or rec) Cystectomy Second Line Intravesical Tx Cystectomy T1G3 BCG Initial Treatment 1st Evaluation 2nd Evaluation (>6 mo) Yes No

Positive Cytology: 

Positive Cytology 71 y/o man with T1 G3 TCC with CIS BCG x 6 weeks After last dose had severe irritative sx and fever to 102 x 24 hours 6 weeks later – cysto negative and cytology positive Dr. Ratliff?

Issues Highlighted by Case: 

Issues Highlighted by Case What defines BCG intolerance & contra-indication for further BCG therapy Approach to patients with positive cytology post-BCG

Issue 1: Fever & Irritative Symptoms after BCG: 

Issue 1: Fever & Irritative Symptoms after BCG Irritative symptoms occur in 35-90% of patients (median, 75%) AUA Bladder Cancer Guidelines Transient fever > 102 in 1-2% at each instillation Lamm, DL and Torti, FM, Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 1996 Fever longer than 24 hrs considered infection and treated accordingly

Issue 1: Fever & Irritative Symptoms after BCG: 

Reduction of transient symptoms (30-50%) by either: BCG dose reduction (1/2 to 1/3) Martinez-Pineiro, BJU International 2002 Slow dosing BCG on an every other week schedule Bassi, Eur. Urol. 2002 Current patient not considered BCG intolerant Issue 1: Fever & Irritative Symptoms after BCG

Issue 2: Positive Cytology Post-BCG: 

Issue 2: Positive Cytology Post-BCG Positive cytology strong indicator of presence of TCC (>95%) BCG induced antitumor activity can be delayed CIS without maintenance: 57% to 68% CR Lamm J Urol 2002 Additional treatment increases response maintenance 55% to 84% CR Lamm, J Urol 2002 Tim, you could consider quoting the Herr paper from my section to tie these 2 sections together

Issue 2: Positive Cytology Post-BCG: 

Determine source of positive cytology >80% in bladder while ≈ 20% outside bladder (ureter, kidney, prostatic ducts) At U. Iowa routinely restage patients with post-treatment positive cytology Bladder barbotage, random bladder bx, prostatic urethra bx, upper tract washings, bilateral retrograde pyelograms Issue 2: Positive Cytology Post-BCG

Treatment: 

Treatment If disease localized to bladder, 3 reduced doses BCG (1/3, 1/10, 1/10) with IFNα (50 MU followed 1 mo later with another 3 treatment cycle Evaluate at 6 mo.

Positive Cytology: 

Positive Cytology 53 y/o non-smoker History of Ta, G2 TCC 2 years ago Positive cytology IVP negative Bladder and prostatic urethral biopsies negative 3 months later – positive cytology Dr. Lamm?

Positive Cytology, Negative Bx: 

Positive Cytology, Negative Bx 0.2% Methylene blue vital staining will increase yield of biopsy UroVysion should be positive, but can be checked if there are doubts Differential wash: bladder and each ureter for cytology Ureteroscopy with biopsy of any suspicious urothelium

Unusual Histology: 

Unusual Histology 58 y/o man with T1 micropapillary bladder cancer Dr. Theodorescu?

Clinical demographics of “Micropapillary” bladder cancer : 

Clinical demographics of “Micropapillary” bladder cancer Literature review 1966 to 3/2005 Search Terms: “micropapillary bladder cancer (carcinoma)”

What is micropapillary (MPC) bladder cancer? : 

What is micropapillary (MPC) bladder cancer? Clinical Features Variant of carcinoma in various anatomic sites (breast, urinary bladder, lung, and salivary glands) High propensity for lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastases Often high-stage disease at presentation Tumors with <10% MPC have a high chance of detection at an early stage Poor clinical outcome compared with that of patients with urothelial carcinoma (N=38, 40% DFS at 3yrs) Radiation and chemotherapy do not seem to be effective

What is micropapillary (MPC) bladder cancer? : 

What is micropapillary (MPC) bladder cancer? Pathology immunohistochemical staining pattern supports that MPC is a variant of adenocarcinoma small tight clusters of neoplastic cells floating in clear spaces resembling lymphatic channels pattern is mixed with a variable component of conventional urothelial carcinoma or other variants Low Power High Power Figures from: webpathology.com

58 y/o man with T1 MPC: 

58 y/o man with T1 MPC Very lucky to have detected it at an early stage Staging workup (CT chest, CT-IVP and BS) Given aggressive clinical behavior and lack of evidence intravesical therapy, radiation therapy or systemic chemotherapy of benefit patient CYSTECTOMY ASAP!

Carcinoma in Situ: 

Carcinoma in Situ 68 y/o woman former smoker with CIS BCG x 6 weeks Biopsy 6 weeks later demonstrates CIS Dr. Ratliff?

Issues Highlighted by Case: 

Issues Highlighted by Case Conservative vs radical therapy Conservative treatment options

Issue 1 Conservative vs Radical Therapy: 

Issue 1 Conservative vs Radical Therapy Natural history CIS progression  7% annually and 3.3% at 6 mo Cheng, Cancer, 1999 Millan-Rodriquez, J Urol, 2000 Cystectomy mortality  2% Thus another 3 mo for additional conservative therapy is acceptable risk

Issue 2: Treatment Options: 

Issue 2: Treatment Options BCG induced antitumor activity can be delayed CIS without maintenance: 57% to 68% CR Lamm J Urol 2002 Additional treatment increases response maintenance 55% to 84% CR Lamm, J Urol 2002

Issue 2: Treatment Options: 

Issue 2: Treatment Options Chemotherapy for BCG failures provides poor response rates  19% for MMC post BCG Malmstrom, J Urol, 2001 Low Dose BCG after one cycle BCG failure provides 60% durable CR (same as BCG naive)

Slide39: 

Maymi et al, AUA Abstract 918

Treatment: 

Treatment Low dose BCG + IFN (50 MU) Evaluate at 3 and 6 mo. If fail at 6 mo., cystectomy

Recurrent High Grade TCC: 

Recurrent High Grade TCC 65 y/o woman with a history of Ta G2-3 TCC Intravesical BCG for 6 weeks Regular surveillance cystoscopy 2 years after her initial tumor has a 2 cm, Ta G3 TCC Dr. Lamm?

High Grade Recurrence after BCG Induction: 

High Grade Recurrence after BCG Induction Meta analysis shows BCG reduces progression, but only with maintenance Repeated 6 week treatments is historically suboptimal, suppresses cytokines, risks immunosuppression, and is ineffective in a controlled trial 3 weekly BCG (extending if there are no symptoms), repeating at 3 months, then q. 6 months would be my choice for her

3 Week Maintenance BCG 550 pts. 6 wk vs. 3 wk maintenance at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, & 36 months : 

3 Week Maintenance BCG 550 pts. 6 wk vs. 3 wk maintenance at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, & 36 months Recurrence -free Survival Survival Worsening -free Survival Lamm DL et al, J Urol 163, 1124, 2000 p < 0.0001 p = 0.08 p = 0.04

Slide44: 

BCG Maintenance: Not Created Equal Years Percent Tumor Recurrence M, TaT1, 3wk maintenance BCG M, CIS, 3wk maintenance BCG I, CIS, 6wk induction BCG I, TaT1, 6wk induction BCG M. Ta, T1 M. CIS I. CIS I. Ta, T1 * ** N=385, 3q 3-6mo. Time in months Global recurrence Maintenance Control N=126, 6q 6mo. Months % Disease Free N=93 pts. 1q 1mo. M BCG I BCG Months % Tumor Free N=42 pts. 1q 3mo.

Meta Analysis: BCG vs Control: 

Meta Analysis: BCG vs Control 24 trials with 4863 patients were eligible: Start of Patient Entry: Date of Publication: Duration of Follow Up: Five BCG strains: 1978 to 1993 1982 to 2001 Median: 2.5 years Maximum: 15 years TICE, Connaught, Pasteur, RIVM, A. Frappier Sylvester, R: J Urol, 2002

Progression: Maintenance BCG : 

Progression: Maintenance BCG Patients No BCG BCG OR No Maint 1049 10.3% 10.8% 1.28 Maintenance 3814 14.7% 9.5% 0.63 Test for heterogeneity: P = 0.008 BCG was only effective in trials with maintenance, where it reduced the risk of progression by 37% p = 0.00004.

Slide47: 

Progression All Studies With Maintenance 1988 Ibrahiem (Egypt) 12 / 30 5 / 17 -1.1 2.6 Total 257 / 1749 196 / 2065 -36.8 80.9 (14.7 %) (9.5 %) 37% ±9 reduction 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 BCG No BCG Test for heterogeneity better better c 2 =9.73, df=18: p=0.9 Treatment effect: p=0.00004

Survival: 

Survival Death Patients No BCG BCG Total OR All 2930 26.7% 23.2% 24.8% 0.89 Bladder 2370 7.7% 5.6% 6.5% 0.81 The reductions in the odds of death, 11% overall and 19% bladder cancer, are not statistically significant, as might be expected with 2.5 year mean follow up

Slide49: 

Use perioperative therapy for low-risk TCC Use maintenance BCG for high-risk TCC Lower the dose for BCG toxicity Don’t abandon BCG therapy for CIS at 3 months Recurrent T1 disease is dangerous Be more aggressive with micropapillary & small cell histology Don’t follow your patient to the grave – consider cystectomy when local Rx fails

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