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Premium member Presentation Transcript Indus Valley Civilization: Indus Valley Civilization a Primary Phase Culture little or no continuity with the following cultures forgotten until the 19th Century rediscovered by the British, while building railroadsHarappan society and its neighbors, ca. 2000 B.C.E.: Harappan society and its neighbors, ca. 2000 B.C.E.Harappan Culture: Harappan Culture Indus valley not desert well-watered and heavily forested 500 miles along the river valley 10-20 times larger than Mesopotamia or EgyptFoundations of Harappan Society: Foundations of Harappan Society The Indus River Silt-enriched water from mountain ranges Major society built by Dravidian peoples, 3000-2500 BCE Cultivation of cotton before 5000 BCE, early cultivation of poultry Decline after 1900 BCE Major cities: Harrapa (Punjab region and Mohenjo-Daro (mouth of Indus River) 70 smaller sites excavated (total 1,500) Slide5: IndiaSlide6: Harappan culture sitesHydraulic Culture: Hydraulic Culture like Egypt and Mesopotamia agriculture and flood-control significant industry and trade cities very commonLack of Sources : Lack of Sources literate culture we cannot read the writing writing on bricks and seals did not use paper or clay tabletsSlide9: “Unicorn” seal + writingSlide10: More sealsSlide11: …and more seals...Slide12: Seated “yogi” : early Shiva?Reasonable generalizations: Reasonable generalizations rapid development: early 2,000s B.C. roughly contemporary with Egypt and Mesopotamia early village culture changing rapidly to urban civilizationGeneralizations, con’t : Generalizations, con’t cities dominated both economic and political activity origins of the people are unclear similar to the Mediterranean typeMajor Cities: Major Cities Harappa and Mohenjo-daro surrounded by smaller cities, towns, and villages one situated in the north one situated in the southMohenjo-Daro Ruins: Mohenjo-Daro Ruins Population c. 40,000 Regional center Layout, architecture suggests public purpose Broad streets, citadel, pool, sewage Standardized weights evident throughout region Specialized labor TradeCities, con’t: Cities, con’t uniform culture over a wide area cities built on a common plan a grid: always NS and EW axes with twelve smaller grids kiln-dried brickSlide18: Grid map of Mohenjo-daroSlide19: Mohenjo-daro : aerial viewSlide20: Mohenjo-daro view of the “Citadel”Slide21: The “Great Bath”Slide22: another view of the “Great Bath”Slide23: view of a small, side streetSlide24: looks like a small tower, but actually it is a neighborhood wellSlide25: A bathroom on a private residenceSlide26: A public well in Harappa, or perhaps an ancient laundromat...Slide27: A large drain or sewerMonumental architecture: Monumental architecture very-large scale building walled cites, with fortified citadels always on the same scale palaces, templesArchitecture, con’t : Architecture, con’t large grain storage facilities near temples a theocracy ?? planned economySlide30: Harappan granaryCities: Cities very densely populated houses: two to three stories every house is laid out the sameCulture and Society: Culture and Society advanced agriculture surplus production textiles: wool and cotton domesticated animals and fishBronze Age technology: Bronze Age technology no swords spears and bows stone arrow headsSociety: Society dominated by priests ? from the fortified palaces and temples ? power base: fertility ? deities: male and female, both nude bull worship and phallic symbolsSlide35: A priest? A bull Trade: Trade with lower Mesopotamia but gradually declinedDecline: Decline domination of an indigenous people ? who rebelled ? foreign invasion? gradual decline ?Combination of Changes: Combination of Changes climate shift: the monsoon patterns flooding destruction of the forests migrations of new peoples: the AryansThe Aryan “Invasion”: The Aryan “Invasion” Aryans, lighter-skinned invaders from the north Dravidians, darker-skinned sedentary inhabitants of Harappa Color Bias Socio-Economic Implications Difficulty of theory: no evidence of large-scale military conquestSlide40: Possible route of the Aryan invasionsThe Aryans: The Aryans not to be confused with Hitler’s “Aryans” these Aryans speak an Indo-European dialect related to other languages like Greek and LatinThe Aryans, con’t : The Aryans, con’t they called themselves “Aryans” their land: “Aryavarta” land of the AryansThe Early Aryans: The Early Aryans Pastoral economy: sheep, goats, horses, cattle Vegetarianism not widespread until many centuries later Religious and Literary works: The Vedas Sanskrit: sacred tongue Prakrit: everyday language, evolved into Hindi, Urdu, Bengali Four Vedas, most important Rig Veda 1,028 hymms to godsGradual settlement: Gradual settlement over a long period of time gradual infiltration more primitive than the earlier cultureSettlement, con’t : Settlement, con’t new society by 1,200 B.C. or so little evidence not literate no record systemOral Tradition: Oral Tradition passed down from priests and singers written down in the 500’s The Vedas “Veda” means “knowledge”The Vedas: The Vedas our primary source early Aryan tradition later Hindu religion four “vedas” the Rig Veda is the oldestSlide48: Krishna with Arjuna on the battlefield of Kuruksketra 2 points to the first person who can tell whether this is a modern or ancient painting and why?Slide49: Krishna reveals himself to Arjuna in his manifold aspectsThe Vedas: The Vedas oral poetry come to have a sacred character provide some historical informationThe Aryans: The Aryans restless, warlike people tall, blue-eyed, fair-skinned describe the indigenous population as short, “black”, noseless, and slavesThe Aryans, con’t : The Aryans, con’t villages and kingdoms constantly fighting warchiefs and kings aristocrats and freemenThe Aryans, con’t: The Aryans, con’t fond of fighting, drinking, chariot racing, gambling chasing women and bragging about their spears any modern comparisons ??? fond of taking soma a psychedelic drug probably psychotropic mushroomsAryans and Hindus: Aryans and Hindus Aryans give rise to Hindu society but different characteristics cows: they ate them classes, but no castes priests subordinate to the nobility the MahabharataThe Iron Age: new sources: The Iron Age: new sources the Vedas: passed on orally the Brahamanas: interpretations on the Vedas the Upanishads: interpretations and symbolic studies forerunners of later dissenting literatureStrain of change: Strain of change Iron Age change causes strain on the class system blurring of lines between Aryans and Daas answered with the caste systemCaste System, 1000 BC: Caste System, 1000 BC skin color ritual purity “Us--Them” feelings divine order of four castesCaste System (“Varnas”): Caste System (“Varnas”) Brahmins: the priests Kshatriyas: the warriors Vaisyas: merchants and peasants Sudras: non-AryansCaste system, con’t: Caste system, con’t produced by Brahmins literature emphasized the divine order hierarchical relationship inheritance and marriageCaste system in practice: Caste system in practice warrior class did not always accept it nor the other classes the process of evolution is still going on the most powerful organizer of Indian society thousand of castes todayCastes: Castes define a person’s social universe define a person’s standard of conduct define a person’s expectations define a person’s future define how a person deals with othersBooks you can read, if you read: Books you can read, if you read Bridget and Raymond Allchin. The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan. A.L. Basham. The Wonder That Was India. Walter A. Fairservis. The Roots of Indian Tradition Jonathana Mark Kenoyer. Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization Juan Mascaro, trans. The Upanishads Stuart Piggott. Prehistoric India Romila Thapar. A History of India Romila Thapar. Recent Perspectives of Early Indian History You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.