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Section II: The Mind and Soul: 

Section II: The Mind and Soul

Toward a Psychology of Stress: 

Toward a Psychology of Stress Chapter 4


“Modern man is sick because he is not whole.” —Carl Gustav Jung

Mind-Body Connection: 

Mind-Body Connection Is the mind a function of the brain, a series of biochemical reactions, or is it a separate entity unto itself? This one question, perhaps more than any other, initiated the discipline of psychology.

Mind-Body Connection: 

Mind-Body Connection In this chapter, we will look at how the mind perceives stress so that the “antiquated” stress response can be updated or re-circuited, highlighting some specific aspects of the psychology of stress.

Psychological Nature of Stress: 

Psychological Nature of Stress This chapter will review the nature of stress from a psychological view Several theories will be explored, including the theories and views of: Sigmund Freud Carl Gustav Jung Elisabeth Kübler-Ross Viktor Frankl Wayne Dyer Leo Buscaglia Abraham Maslow

Sigmund Freud: 

Sigmund Freud Freud believed that humans maintain a level of (instinctual) tension that arises from both internal sources (instinctual impulses) and external sources which attack our ego or identity. The ego copes with stress through the use of a host of defense mechanisms, including denial, repression, projection, rationalization, displacement, and humor.

Some of Freud’s Defensive Mechanisms: 

Some of Freud’s Defensive Mechanisms Denial (I didn’t do it) Repression (I don’t remember doing it) Projection (He did it) Rationalization (Everyone does it) Displacement (He made me do it) Humor (I did it, and a year from now I’ll laugh about it!)

Sigmund Freud: 

Sigmund Freud In Freud’s opinion, there is a constant instinctual tension between body and mind as the mind attempts to cater to the biological and physiological impulses in socially acceptable ways. This internal tension can be decreased, but because of the power of human instincts, it is never fully extinguished.

Sigmund Freud’s Egg Metaphor: 

Sigmund Freud’s Egg Metaphor Yolk Id Egg Ego

Carl Gustav Jung: 

Carl Gustav Jung Proposed many theories of the mind and consciousness He coined many household words such as: Introvert Extrovert Archetypes Individuation Synchronicity

Carl Gustav Jung: 

Carl Gustav Jung Jung theorized human personality as a process of self-discovery and realization, a concept he referred to as individuation. Individuation involves not only the culmination of childhood experiences but a spiritual life force that shapes one’s being and life direction.

Carl Gustav Jung: 

Carl Gustav Jung Jung also suggested that there is a certain level of innate tension, psychic tension, which exists due to the language barrier between the conscious and unconscious minds. Individuation can reduce this tension through a continual soul searching that builds a bridge of understanding between the conscious and unconscious mind.

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross (the death of unmet expectations): 

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross (the death of unmet expectations) Kübler-Ross believed that stress can be aroused through the death of unmet expectations, which produces a series of mental processes. These processes are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance Resolution of emotional baggage leads one to the final stage, acceptance which enhances inner peace.

Stages of Death & Grieving: 

Stages of Death & Grieving Denial (This isn’t happening) Anger (I am furious this is happening) Bargaining (Well OK, as long as…) Withdrawal (silence) Acceptance (OK, this is it, now let’s get on with things) Never stated, yet implied, is the 6th stage: 6. Adaptation (how do I adapt to the situation)

Viktor Frankl (a search for the meaning of life): 

Viktor Frankl (a search for the meaning of life) Frankl’s psychological theories center around the concept of human pain and the meaning of suffering. Frankl believed that for life to be complete there must be suffering, but that there must also be a search for the meaning of the suffering to resolve the issues of emotional stress.

Viktor Frankl (a search for the meaning of life): 

Viktor Frankl (a search for the meaning of life) Logotherapy Tragic optimism Noo-dynamics “Spirituality”

Wayne Dyer (guilt and worry): 

Wayne Dyer (guilt and worry) Dyer believes that guilt and worry are associated with virtually every stressor perceived by people in America. Guilt is an expression of self-anger; worry, a manifestation of fear.

Wayne Dyer (guilt and worry): 

Wayne Dyer (guilt and worry) Guilt and worry immobilize the thought processes, distract one from the present moment, and thus make one unable to conquer stress and attain inner peace.

Wayne Dyer (guilt and worry): 

Wayne Dyer (guilt and worry) Erroneous zones Emotional zones that waste energy Left-over guilt Self-imposed guilt “The art of worrying”

Leo Buscaglia (the lessons of self-love): 

Leo Buscaglia (the lessons of self-love) Buscaglia believes that love is a response to a learned group of stimuli and behaviors; it is not innate, but taught. Buscaglia believes there are many degrees of love, from joy to grace, but there is only one love, that which leads to the positive growth process of self-discovery.

Leo Buscaglia (the lessons of self-love): 

Leo Buscaglia (the lessons of self-love) Chronic stress and low self-esteem Self-love and the X-factor Self-love and self-acceptance

Abraham Maslow (the art of self-actualization): 

Abraham Maslow (the art of self-actualization) Maslow developed a humanistic approach to psychology that placed emphasis on personality traits, those reflections of inner resources that seem to help people cope with stress and achieve psychological health. Maslow theory of motivation suggests that humans operate on a hierarchy of needs that influences behavior.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: 

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 1. Physiological needs 2. Safety needs 3. Belongingness and love 4. Needs for self-esteem 5. Self-actualization

A Tibetan Perspective on the Mind and Stress: 

A Tibetan Perspective on the Mind and Stress The mind is comprised of the “self” (false self, ego driven self) and the “Self” (the true self or the aspect of the Higher Self) The goal is not to allow the “self” to overpower the “Self” Stress is a consequence of desires with attachments Let go of attachments and inner peace can be realized

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