transport in sao paulo


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Challenges of Managing Transport in Sao Paulo As you watch this PowerPoint, you need to make notes on: The challenges facing Sao Paulo, particularly with reference to transport. The aspects of Sao Paulo’s transport network that are successful. Any solutions to the issues raised. Try to include detail where possible as this will improve your exam grade!


Although urbanisation plans have been implemented in some areas, São Paulo has developed quickly without major planning. Ineffective public transport associated with a high number of cars and other vehicles in circulation lead to consistently congested traffic on many roads of the city. Approximately 830,000 people - about 5% of the population - live in slums (favelas) in São Paulo and surrounding regions. The so-called PCC (Primeiro Comando da Capital or First Command of the Capital) is a criminal faction whose terrorist attacks in May and July 2006 shocked its citizens. The main target of these attacks were the police and government officials. Although there exists several parks across the city, the green area per capita is very small. Because of the lack of green spaces and the impermeability of the paved ground, rain water cannot be drained and floods are common in particular areas. Air pollution is high. The two major rivers crossing the city are severely polluted. Crime rate is high, and many residents have sought personal security by living in gated communities. What are the Issues in Sao Paulo?


Congestion in Sao Paulo is a problem. Transport within Brazil is overwhelmingly road based, accounting for 97% of travel, compared with 2.2% air and less than 1% rail. SOLUTION 1: In Sao Paulo there is a traffic control program, or rodizio, restricting car usage one day a week, depending on the last digit of your number plate. For example on Monday number plates ending in 1 or 2 are prohibited from circulating in certain areas between certain times. SOLUTION 2: The main means of commuting into the city is by car and by bus. An effective way of avoiding heavy vehicles traffic in the city, such as buses and trucks that crossed the city for other destinations, was planned by ex-governor Mário Covas as a ring of road that circles the city, and is currently being built. SOLUTION 3: Ethanol… Cars


Brazil is currently the world’s largest consumer and producer of ethanol. Due to the early utilisation of fuel alcohol and the introduction of commercial FFVs (Flexible Fuel Vehicles – vehicles that have 2 fuel tanks for 2 types of fuel), the country has gained a huge knowledge about ethanol. In the 70´s the Brazilian Government created the Brazilian Ethanol Programme PROÁLCOOL in order to reduce the country’s dependence of oil imports by substituting conventional gasoline with fuel alcohol from sugar cane. Since 1975, the cost of producing ethanol has declined by 4 to 5 percent annually, making it both environmentally desirable and cost effective.   One new objective is to implement the Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV - battery) technology running on the Brazilian gasohol (25 % of alcohol admixture to regular gasoline). The advanced technology achieves up to twice the fuel economy of regular vehicles, helping to reduce up to 50 percent of greenhouse gas emissions.   The City of São Paulo is the fourth biggest city in the world (16 million people are living in the metropolitan area). Due to the city’s inadequate public transport congestion is one of the major constraints for further progress of the city. In addition it poses serious health hazards to the citizens. São Paulo has developed a long-range transport plan where less-polluting Flex Fuel Vehicles (FFVs) or Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) will help to significantly reduce pollution. Ethanol and Electric Cars


São Paulo has three airports. In 2005, about 33 million people passed through the city's airports. São Paulo thus contains the most crowded air space both in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere. 1. Congonhas Domestic Airport operates domestic and regional flights, mainly to Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte and Brasília. 2. Campo de Marte Airport handles some private and small aeroplanes. 3. Guarulhos International Airport operates domestic and international flights.1 Airports


Within São Paulo, the subway is the safest and fastest transport option, but with only three lines it is fairly limited. The metro is open from 5am to midnight, including weekends, but ticket windows close at 10pm. The city has 60.5 km of underground railway systems (34.6 km fully underground). The São Paulo Metro, known as the Metrô, has 4 lines in operation and 57 stations (33 underground). The system falls down substantially on the question of integration with other parts of the public transport system as there is no through-ticketing or frequent user incentives such as travelcards. The other failure on the part of the system is its lack of comprehensive coverage for all zones of the city. Underground


SOLUTION: Modest expansion is underway, with extensions to existing lines taking the network marginally further out of the city boundaries, though still not extending coverage as comprehensively throughout the city as might be wished nor simplifying some journeys in the centre. In addition to a new line to link the city centre with the cultural and shopping districts around Jardins, there is also an extension to relieve congestion in the city centre. Two new lines have been planned in the south of the city, though no work has begun. Underground On Friday January 12, 2007, a huge crater opened by accident in a future line 4 (yellow) station of São Paulo´s subway system. Professionals who work in the company blame the excess of rain as a primary cause, although people say that what really happened was insufficient soil analysis, since the station is very close to the river. Seven people were killed (four of them in a passing bus which was swallowed and buried by the cave-in). The accident caused serious damages to many houses in the surrounding area, forcing their inhabitants to move to hotels and the homes of relatives.


‘Sao Paulo‘s urban bus system is pretty complicated, even for the locals.’ Roughly 17,000 buses serve the 16 million inhabitants of the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region, coloured uniformly according to the region served (e.g. light green for the buses that go from the centre to the southwest, dark blue for the northern area); 12,000 of them serve the Sao Paulo municipality itself. Congestion is heavy at peak travel times, and traffic signal timing favours the flow of cars. Bus operations are also hampered by obsolete ticket collection systems and by poor access for bus passengers, which lengthens boarding and alighting times. Average bus speed is about 13 kilometres per hour and service is unreliable. Until recently, there was a strong presence of informal transportation (dab vans). These are now fully legalized and operating under the same colour scheme of the main system. Buses


SOLUTION? A pioneer project in Sao Paulo involves the private implementation and operation of "trunkline bus corridors", showing a way of financing investments in public transport that the state and municipal governments would otherwise have postponed because of tight budgets. Conditions are expected to improve soon as the private sector becomes involved in "trunkline bus corridors." All costs to implement each service, including improvements in street systems and facilities such as terminals, are to be born by the winning firm. Tender documents for ten bus corridors have been issued, ten bids have now been awarded and contracts signed. Regulatory and controlling power remain in government hands. The government will control tariffs, preventing undue increases harmful to low income users, and monitoring the level of service offered against the pre-agreed targets. Buses


Challenges of Managing Transport in Sao Paulo Now use a new piece of paper and create a mind map showing what you can remember. Now check that your mind map includes: An introduction section, outlining issues in Sao Paulo. Information about road transport, including solutions of new fuel technology and new road developments. Information about the airports – a more successful element of the transport network in Sao Paulo. The Metro. What are it’s strengths and where does it need improving? The buses. What changes are taking place? Overall assessment of sustainability???

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