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Antennas & Propagation Signal Encoding: 

Antennas & Propagation Signal Encoding CSG 250 Spring 2005 Rajmohan Rajaraman


Introduction An antenna is an electrical conductor or system of conductors Transmission - radiates electromagnetic energy into space Reception - collects electromagnetic energy from space In two-way communication, the same antenna can be used for transmission and reception

Radiation Patterns: 

Radiation Patterns Radiation pattern Graphical representation of radiation properties of an antenna Depicted as two-dimensional cross section Beam width (or half-power beam width) Measure of directivity of antenna Angle within which power radiated is at least half of that in most preferred direction Reception pattern Receiving antenna’s equivalent to radiation pattern Omnidirectional vs. directional antenna

Types of Antennas: 

Types of Antennas Isotropic antenna (idealized) Radiates power equally in all directions Dipole antennas Half-wave dipole antenna (or Hertz antenna) Quarter-wave vertical antenna (or Marconi antenna) Parabolic Reflective Antenna Used for terrestrial microwave and satellite applications Larger the diameter, the more tightly directional is the beam

Antenna Gain : 

Antenna Gain Antenna gain Power output, in a particular direction, compared to that produced in any direction by a perfect omnidirectional antenna (isotropic antenna) Expressed in terms of effective area Related to physical size and shape of antenna

Antenna Gain: 

Antenna Gain Relationship between antenna gain and effective area G = antenna gain Ae = effective area f = carrier frequency c = speed of light (≈ 3 x 108 m/s)  = carrier wavelength

Propagation Modes: 

Propagation Modes Ground-wave propagation Sky-wave propagation Line-of-sight propagation

Ground Wave Propagation: 

Ground Wave Propagation

Ground Wave Propagation: 

Ground Wave Propagation Follows contour of the earth Can Propagate considerable distances Frequencies up to 2 MHz Example AM radio

Sky Wave Propagation: 

Sky Wave Propagation

Sky Wave Propagation: 

Sky Wave Propagation Signal reflected from ionized layer of atmosphere back down to earth Signal can travel a number of hops, back and forth between ionosphere and earth’s surface Reflection effect caused by refraction Examples Amateur radio CB radio

Line-of-Sight Propagation: 

Line-of-Sight Propagation

Line-of-Sight Propagation: 

Line-of-Sight Propagation Transmitting and receiving antennas must be within line of sight Satellite communication – signal above 30 MHz not reflected by ionosphere Ground communication – antennas within effective line of site due to refraction Refraction – bending of microwaves by the atmosphere Velocity of electromagnetic wave is a function of the density of the medium When wave changes medium, speed changes Wave bends at the boundary between mediums

Line-of-Sight Equations: 

Line-of-Sight Equations Optical line of sight Effective, or radio, line of sight d = distance between antenna and horizon (km) h = antenna height (m) K = adjustment factor to account for refraction, rule of thumb K = 4/3

Line-of-Sight Equations: 

Line-of-Sight Equations Maximum distance between two antennas for LOS propagation: h1 = height of antenna one h2 = height of antenna two

LOS Wireless Transmission Impairments: 

LOS Wireless Transmission Impairments Attenuation and attenuation distortion Free space loss Noise Atmospheric absorption Multipath Refraction Thermal noise


Attenuation Strength of signal falls off with distance over transmission medium Attenuation factors for unguided media: Received signal must have sufficient strength so that circuitry in the receiver can interpret the signal Signal must maintain a level sufficiently higher than noise to be received without error Attenuation is greater at higher frequencies, causing distortion

Free Space Loss: 

Free Space Loss Free space loss, ideal isotropic antenna Pt = signal power at transmitting antenna Pr = signal power at receiving antenna  = carrier wavelength d = propagation distance between antennas c = speed of light (≈ 3 x 108 m/s) where d and  are in the same units (e.g., meters)

Free Space Loss: 

Free Space Loss Free space loss equation can be recast:

Free Space Loss: 

Free Space Loss Free space loss accounting for gain of antennas Gt = gain of transmitting antenna Gr = gain of receiving antenna At = effective area of transmitting antenna Ar = effective area of receiving antenna

Free Space Loss: 

Free Space Loss Free space loss accounting for gain of other antennas can be recast as

Categories of Noise: 

Categories of Noise Thermal Noise Intermodulation noise Crosstalk Impulse Noise

Thermal Noise: 

Thermal Noise Thermal noise due to agitation of electrons Present in all electronic devices and transmission media Cannot be eliminated Function of temperature Particularly significant for satellite communication

Thermal Noise: 

Thermal Noise Amount of thermal noise to be found in a bandwidth of 1Hz in any device or conductor is: N0 = noise power density in watts per 1 Hz of bandwidth k = Boltzmann's constant = 1.3803 x 10-23 J/K T = temperature, in kelvins (absolute temperature)

Thermal Noise: 

Thermal Noise Noise is assumed to be independent of frequency Thermal noise present in a bandwidth of B Hertz (in watts): or, in decibel-watts

Noise Terminology: 

Noise Terminology Intermodulation noise – occurs if signals with different frequencies share the same medium Interference caused by a signal produced at a frequency that is the sum or difference of original frequencies Crosstalk – unwanted coupling between signal paths Impulse noise – irregular pulses or noise spikes Short duration and of relatively high amplitude Caused by external electromagnetic disturbances, or faults and flaws in the communications system Primary source of error for digital data transmission

Expression Eb/N0: 

Expression Eb/N0 Ratio of signal energy per bit to noise power density per Hertz The bit error rate for digital data is a function of Eb/N0 Given a value for Eb/N0 to achieve a desired error rate, parameters of this formula can be selected As bit rate R increases, transmitted signal power must increase to maintain required Eb/N0

Other Impairments: 

Other Impairments Atmospheric absorption – water vapor and oxygen contribute to attenuation Multipath – obstacles reflect signals so that multiple copies with varying delays are received Refraction – bending of radio waves as they propagate through the atmosphere

Multipath Propagation: 

Multipath Propagation Reflection - occurs when signal encounters a surface that is large relative to the wavelength of the signal Diffraction - occurs at the edge of an impenetrable body that is large compared to wavelength of radio wave Scattering – occurs when incoming signal hits an object whose size is in the order of the wavelength of the signal or less

Effects of Multipath Propagation: 

Effects of Multipath Propagation Multiple copies of a signal may arrive at different phases If phases add destructively, the signal level relative to noise declines, making detection more difficult Intersymbol interference (ISI) One or more delayed copies of a pulse may arrive at the same time as the primary pulse for a subsequent bit


Fading Time variation of received signal power caused by changes in the transmission medium or path(s) In a fixed environment: Changes in atmospheric conditions In a mobile environment: Multipath propagation

Types of Fading: 

Types of Fading Fast fading Slow fading Flat fading Selective fading Rayleigh fading Rician fading

Error Compensation Mechanisms: 

Error Compensation Mechanisms Forward error correction Adaptive equalization Diversity techniques

Forward Error Correction: 

Forward Error Correction Transmitter adds error-correcting code to data block Code is a function of the data bits Receiver calculates error-correcting code from incoming data bits If calculated code matches incoming code, no error occurred If error-correcting codes don’t match, receiver attempts to determine bits in error and correct

Adaptive Equalization: 

Adaptive Equalization Can be applied to transmissions that carry analog or digital information Analog voice or video Digital data, digitized voice or video Used to combat intersymbol interference Involves gathering dispersed symbol energy back into its original time interval Techniques Lumped analog circuits Sophisticated digital signal processing algorithms

Diversity Techniques: 

Diversity Techniques Space diversity: Use multiple nearby antennas and combine received signals to obtain the desired signal Use collocated multiple directional antennas Frequency diversity: Spreading out signal over a larger frequency bandwidth Spread spectrum Time diversity: Noise often occurs in bursts Spreading the data out over time spreads the errors and hence allows FEC techniques to work well TDM Interleaving

Signal Encoding Techniques: 

Signal Encoding Techniques

Reasons for Choosing Encoding Techniques: 

Reasons for Choosing Encoding Techniques Digital data, digital signal Equipment less complex and expensive than digital-to-analog modulation equipment Analog data, digital signal Permits use of modern digital transmission and switching equipment

Reasons for Choosing Encoding Techniques: 

Reasons for Choosing Encoding Techniques Digital data, analog signal Some transmission media will only propagate analog signals E.g., unguided media Analog data, analog signal Analog data in electrical form can be transmitted easily and cheaply Done with voice transmission over voice-grade lines

Signal Encoding Criteria: 

Signal Encoding Criteria What determines how successful a receiver will be in interpreting an incoming signal? Signal-to-noise ratio Data rate Bandwidth An increase in data rate increases bit error rate An increase in SNR decreases bit error rate An increase in bandwidth allows an increase in data rate

Comparing Encoding Schemes: 

Comparing Encoding Schemes Signal spectrum With lack of high-frequency components, less bandwidth required With no dc component, ac coupling via transformer possible Transfer function of a channel is worse near band edges Clocking Ease of determining beginning and end of each bit position

Comparing Encoding Schemes: 

Comparing Encoding Schemes Signal interference and noise immunity Performance in the presence of noise Cost and complexity The higher the signal rate to achieve a given data rate, the greater the cost

Digital Data to Analog Signals: 

Digital Data to Analog Signals Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) Amplitude difference of carrier frequency Frequency-shift keying (FSK) Frequency difference near carrier frequency Phase-shift keying (PSK) Phase of carrier signal shifted

Amplitude-Shift Keying: 

Amplitude-Shift Keying One binary digit represented by presence of carrier, at constant amplitude Other binary digit represented by absence of carrier where the carrier signal is Acos(2πfct)

Amplitude-Shift Keying: 

Amplitude-Shift Keying Susceptible to sudden gain changes Inefficient modulation technique On voice-grade lines, used up to 1200 bps Used to transmit digital data over optical fiber

Binary Frequency-Shift Keying (BFSK): 

Binary Frequency-Shift Keying (BFSK) Two binary digits represented by two different frequencies near the carrier frequency where f1 and f2 are offset from carrier frequency fc by equal but opposite amounts

Binary Frequency-Shift Keying (BFSK): 

Binary Frequency-Shift Keying (BFSK) Less susceptible to error than ASK On voice-grade lines, used up to 1200bps Used for high-frequency (3 to 30 MHz) radio transmission Can be used at higher frequencies on LANs that use coaxial cable

Multiple Frequency-Shift Keying (MFSK): 

Multiple Frequency-Shift Keying (MFSK) More than two frequencies are used More bandwidth efficient but more susceptible to error f i = f c + (2i – 1 – M)f d f c = the carrier frequency f d = the difference frequency M = number of different signal elements = 2 L L = number of bits per signal element

Multiple Frequency-Shift Keying (MFSK): 

Multiple Frequency-Shift Keying (MFSK) To match data rate of input bit stream, each output signal element is held for: Ts=LT seconds where T is the bit period (data rate = 1/T) So, one signal element encodes L bits

Multiple Frequency-Shift Keying (MFSK): 

Multiple Frequency-Shift Keying (MFSK) Total bandwidth required 2Mfd Minimum frequency separation required 2fd=1/Ts Therefore, modulator requires a bandwidth of Wd=2L/LT=M/Ts

Multiple Frequency-Shift Keying (MFSK): 

Multiple Frequency-Shift Keying (MFSK)

Phase-Shift Keying (PSK): 

Phase-Shift Keying (PSK) Two-level PSK (BPSK) Uses two phases to represent binary digits

Phase-Shift Keying (PSK): 

Phase-Shift Keying (PSK) Differential PSK (DPSK) Phase shift with reference to previous bit Binary 0 – signal burst of same phase as previous signal burst Binary 1 – signal burst of opposite phase to previous signal burst

Phase-Shift Keying (PSK): 

Phase-Shift Keying (PSK) Four-level PSK (QPSK) Each element represents more than one bit

Phase-Shift Keying (PSK): 

Phase-Shift Keying (PSK) Multilevel PSK Using multiple phase angles with each angle having more than one amplitude, multiple signals elements can be achieved D = modulation rate, baud R = data rate, bps M = number of different signal elements = 2L L = number of bits per signal element


Performance Bandwidth of modulated signal (BT) ASK, PSK BT=(1+r)R FSK BT=2DF+(1+r)R R = bit rate 0 < r < 1; related to how signal is filtered DF = f2-fc=fc-f1


Performance Bandwidth of modulated signal (BT) MPSK MFSK L = number of bits encoded per signal element M = number of different signal elements

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation: 

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation QAM is a combination of ASK and PSK Two different signals sent simultaneously on the same carrier frequency

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation: 

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

Analog Data to Analog Signal: 

Analog Data to Analog Signal Modulation of digital signals When only analog transmission facilities are available, digital to analog conversion required Modulation of analog signals A higher frequency may be needed for effective transmission Modulation permits frequency division multiplexing

Mopdulation Techniques: 

Mopdulation Techniques Amplitude modulation (AM) Angle modulation Frequency modulation (FM) Phase modulation (PM)

Amplitude Modulation: 

Amplitude Modulation Amplitude Modulation cos2fct = carrier x(t) = input signal na = modulation index (< 1) Ratio of amplitude of input signal to carrier a.k.a double sideband transmitted carrier (DSBTC)

Amplitude Modulation: 

Amplitude Modulation Transmitted power Pt = total transmitted power in s(t) Pc = transmitted power in carrier

Single Sideband (SSB): 

Single Sideband (SSB) Variant of AM is single sideband (SSB) Sends only one sideband Eliminates other sideband and carrier Advantages Only half the bandwidth is required Less power is required Disadvantages Suppressed carrier can’t be used for synchronization purposes

Angle Modulation: 

Angle Modulation Angle modulation Phase modulation Phase is proportional to modulating signal np = phase modulation index

Angle Modulation: 

Angle Modulation Frequency modulation Derivative of the phase is proportional to modulating signal nf = frequency modulation index

Angle Modulation: 

Angle Modulation Compared to AM, FM and PM result in a signal whose bandwidth: is also centered at fc but has a magnitude that is much different Thus, FM and PM require greater bandwidth than AM

Angle Modulation: 

Angle Modulation Carson’s rule where The formula for FM becomes

Analog Data to Digital Signal: 

Analog Data to Digital Signal Digitization: Often analog data are converted to digital form Once analog data have been converted to digital signals, the digital data: can be transmitted using NRZ-L can be encoded as a digital signal using a code other than NRZ-L can be converted to an analog signal, using previously discussed techniques

Analog data to digital signal: 

Analog data to digital signal Pulse code modulation (PCM) Delta modulation (DM)

Pulse Code Modulation: 

Pulse Code Modulation Based on the sampling theorem Each analog sample is assigned a binary code Analog samples are referred to as pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) samples The digital signal consists of block of n bits, where each n-bit number is the amplitude of a PCM pulse

Pulse Code Modulation: 

Pulse Code Modulation By quantizing the PAM pulse, original signal is only approximated Leads to quantizing noise Signal-to-noise ratio for quantizing noise Thus, each additional bit increases SNR by 6 dB, or a factor of 4

Delta Modulation: 

Delta Modulation Analog input is approximated by staircase function Moves up or down by one quantization level () at each sampling interval The bit stream approximates derivative of analog signal (rather than amplitude) 1 is generated if function goes up 0 otherwise

Delta Modulation: 

Delta Modulation

Delta Modulation: 

Delta Modulation Two important parameters Size of step assigned to each binary digit () Sampling rate Accuracy improved by increasing sampling rate However, this increases the data rate Advantage of DM over PCM is the simplicity of its implementation

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