kingdoms-archaebacteria

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Review:

Review Remember from earlier this year that there are two broad categories of organisms: *Prokaryotes – have No membrane bound organelle *Eukaryotes – have membrane bound organelle

Important Features:

Important Features -all are prokaryotes -all have plasmids (small circular packages of DNA) -most have peptidoglycan in their cell walls -flagella are made with a globular protein called flagellin- no 9+2 arrangement

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Cytosol Granules (Small chunks of food)

Locomotion (Methods of Movement):

Locomotion (Methods of Movement) Bacterial Flagellum- lacks microtubules Pili- short, thin appendages

Bacteria:

Bacteria E. coli E. coli

Nutrition:

Nutrition Autotrophs- manufacture organic compounds Photoautotrophs- use light energy & CO 2 Chemoautotrophs-use inorganic substances like H 2 S, NH 3 , and other nitrogen compounds Heterotrophs- obtain energy by consuming organic compounds parasites- get energy from living organisms saprobes (saprophytes)- get energy from dead, decaying matter; also called decomposers

Oxygen Preferences:

Oxygen Preferences obligate aerobes must have oxygen obligate anaerobes cannot live in oxygen facultative anaerobes can grow with or without oxygen

2 Bacteria Kingdoms:

2 Bacteria Kingdoms Kingdom Archaebacteria - are ancient bacteria that live in extreme environments Kingdom Eubacteria - are generally referred to as bacteria or germs, and are considered more recent. Most types of bacteria belong in this kingdom. First appeared approximately 3.7 BYA

The Archaebacteria::

The Archaebacteria: do not have peptidoglycan in their cell walls have ribosomes similar to eukaryotes have unique lipids in their plasma (cell) membranes

The Archaebacteria also::

The Archaebacteria also: have some genes that resemble eukaryotic genes usually are not pathogenic (they don’t usually make us sick!) live in extreme environments: high concentrations of salt extremes of pH and temperature

3 Archaebacterial Groups:

3 Archaebacterial Groups Methanogens Halophiles Thermoacidophiles = live in extremely hot, acid environments

Methanogens:

Methanogens anaerobic bacteria that get energy by turning H 2 and CO 2 into methane (CH 4 ) live in mud, swamps, and the guts of cows, humans, termites and other animals

Halophiles:

Halophiles are organisms that live in environments with extremely high salt concentrations some extreme halophiles can live in solutions of 35 % salt. (seawater is only 3% salt!) halophile means “salt loving” most halophiles are aerobic and heterotrophic; others are anaerobic and photosynthetic, containing the pigment bacteriorhodopsin

Diversity of Halophilic Organisms:

Diversity of Halophilic Organisms halophiles are found in salt lakes, salt marshes, subterranean salt deposits, dry soils, salted meats, hypersaline seas, and salt evaporation pools the Red Sea was named after the halobacterium that turns the water red during massive blooms.

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Halophile Environments solar salterns Owens Lake, Great Salt Lake, coastal splash zones, Dead Sea

Thermoacidophiles:

Thermoacidophiles Like temperature and pH extremes Hot = up to 110 ºC Cold = down to 1 ºC Acid = as low as pH 2 Alkali = as high as pH 9 they are chemoautotrophs, using H 2 S the first Extremophile was found about 30 years ago

Extreme Temperatures:

Extreme Temperatures Thermophiles - High temperature = 60-80 0 C Thermal vents and hot springs May go hand in hand with chemical extremes Psychrophiles - Low temperature Arctic and Antarctic 1/2 of Earth’s surface is oceans between 1 0 C & 4 0 C Deep sea –1 0 C to 4 0 C Most rely on photosynthesis

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Thermophile Environments Hydrothermal Vents in the ocean, and Obsidian Pool in Yellowstone National Park

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Psychrophile Environments Alan Hills Ice Field: Antarctica

Thermophile Applications:

Thermophile Applications many industrial processes involve temperature extremes, which is a problem for most enzymes Enzymes to work on foods that need to be refrigerated Perfumes - most don’t tolerate high temperatures Cold-wash detergents PCR reactions

Chemical Extremes:

Chemical Extremes Acidophiles - Acidic Again thermal vents and some hot springs Alkaliphiles - Alkaline Soda lakes in Africa and western U.S. Halophiles - Highly Salty Natural salt lakes and manmade pools Sometimes occurs with extreme alkalinity

Acidophiles:

Acidophiles Enzymes used to increase efficiency of animal feeds enzymes help animals extract nutrients from feed more efficient and less expensive Life at High Temperatures, Thomas M. Brock

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Acidophile Environments

Alkaliphiles:

Alkaliphiles “Stonewashed” pants Alkaliphilic enzymes soften fabric and release some of the dyes, giving worn look and feel Detergents Enzymes to dissolve proteins or fats Alkaliphilic enzymes can work with detergents

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Alkaliphile Environments e.g. Mono Lake alkaline soda lake, pH 9, salinity 8%

Examples of Unusual Habitats:

Examples of Unusual Habitats The bacterium pseudomonas was found living on a desert plant in the Negev Desert. The plant secretes salt through salt glands on its leaves. Bacillus was found in the nasal cavities of desert iguanas. These iguanas have salt glands in their nasal cavities that secrete KCl brine during osmotic stress.

Special Techniques for Survival:

Special Techniques for Survival While external environments are “extreme”, internal cell environments are “normal”. Ways to protect the cell: Acidophiles and Alkaliphiles sometimes excrete protective substances and enzymes Acidophiles often lack cell wall Some moderate halophiles have high concentrations of a solute inside to avoid “pickling” Many microbes contain unusual enzymes

Interesting Facts :

Interesting Facts The term “red herring” comes from the foul smell of salted meats that were spoiled by halobacterium. There have been considerable problems with halophiles colonizing leather during the salt curing process.

Future Applications:

Future Applications Many possible applications using halophiles are being explored such as: genetically engineering halophilic enzymes, encoding DNA into crops to allow for salt tolerance treatment of waste water

Summary:

Summary Now you know something about Extremophiles where they live how they survive They are interesting because they have enzymes that work in unusual conditions