Presentation Description

No description available.


By: sonali28 (144 month(s) ago)

heyy nice presentation !!!! please let me know how to dwnload it.... i need printouts for xamzzz...! rply soon

Presentation Transcript


Deadlocks Chapter 3 3.1. Resource 3.2. Introduction to deadlocks 3.3. The ostrich algorithm 3.4. Deadlock detection and recovery 3.5. Deadlock avoidance 3.6. Deadlock prevention 3.7. Other issues


Introduction Parallel operation among many devices driven by concurrent processes contribute significantly to high performance. But concurrency also results in contention for resources and possibility of deadlock among the vying processes. Deadlock is a situation where a group of processes are permanently blocked waiting for the resources held by each other in the group. Typical application where deadlock is a serious problem: Operating system, data base accesses, and distributed processing.

System Model: 

System Model Resource types R1, R2, . . ., Rm CPU cycles, memory space, I/O devices Each resource type Ri has Wi instances. Each process utilizes a resource as follows: request use release

Deadlock Characterization: 

Deadlock Characterization Mutual exclusion: only one process at a time can use a resource. Hold and wait: a process holding at least one resource is waiting to acquire additional resources held by other processes. No preemption: a resource can be released only voluntarily by the process holding it, after that process has completed its task. Circular wait: there exists a set {P0, P1, …, P0} of waiting processes such that P0 is waiting for a resource that is held by P1, P1 is waiting for a resource that is held by P2, …, Pn–1 is waiting for a resource that is held by Pn, and P0 is waiting for a resource that is held by P0. Deadlock can arise if four conditions hold simultaneously.

Resource-Allocation Graph: 

Resource-Allocation Graph V is partitioned into two types: P = {P1, P2, …, Pn}, the set consisting of all the processes in the system. R = {R1, R2, …, Rm}, the set consisting of all resource types in the system. request edge – directed edge P1  Rj assignment edge – directed edge Rj  Pi A set of vertices V and a set of edges E.

Resource-Allocation Graph (Cont.): 

Resource-Allocation Graph (Cont.) Process Resource Type with 4 instances Pi requests instance of Rj Pi is holding an instance of Rj Pi Rj

Resource Allocation Graph with a Deadlock: 

Resource Allocation Graph with a Deadlock

Resource Allocation Graph with a cycle but No Deadlock: 

Resource Allocation Graph with a cycle but No Deadlock

Deadlock Modeling : 

How deadlock occurs A B C Deadlock Modeling

Methods for Handling Deadlocks: 

Methods for Handling Deadlocks Ensure that the system will never enter a deadlock state. (pessimistic) Allow the system to enter a deadlock state and then recover. Database systems; Ignore the problem and pretend that deadlocks never occur in the system; Older operating systems; (ostrich algorithm: optimistic)

Dealing with Deadlock : 

Dealing with Deadlock Strategies for dealing with Deadlocks just ignore the problem altogether detection and recovery dynamic avoidance careful resource allocation prevention negating one of the four necessary conditions

The Ostrich Algorithm: 

The Ostrich Algorithm Pretend there is no problem Reasonable if deadlocks occur very rarely cost of prevention is high UNIX and Windows takes this approach It is a trade off between convenience correctness

Detection with One Resource of Each Type (1): 

Detection with One Resource of Each Type (1) Note the resource ownership and requests A cycle can be found within the graph, denoting deadlock

Recovery from Deadlock (1): 

Recovery from Deadlock (1) Recovery through preemption take a resource from some other process depends on nature of the resource Recovery through rollback checkpoint a process periodically use this saved state restart the process if it is found deadlocked

Recovery from Deadlock (2): 

Recovery from Deadlock (2) Recovery through killing processes crudest but simplest way to break a deadlock kill one of the processes in the deadlock cycle the other processes get its resources choose process that can be rerun from the beginning

Deadlock Avoidance: 

Deadlock Avoidance Simplest and most useful model requires that each process declare the maximum number of resources of each type that it may need. The deadlock-avoidance algorithm dynamically examines the resource-allocation state to ensure that there can never be a circular-wait condition. Resource-allocation state is defined by the number of available and allocated resources, and the maximum demands of the processes. Requires that the system has some additional a priori information available.

Safe State: 

Safe State When a process requests an available resource, system must decide if immediate allocation leaves the system in a safe state. System is in safe state if there exists a safe sequence of all processes. Sequence andlt;P1, P2, …, Pnandgt; is safe if for each Pi, the resources that Pi can still request can be satisfied by currently available resources + resources held by all the Pj, with jandlt;I. If Pi resource needs are not immediately available, then Pi can wait until all Pj have finished. When Pj is finished, Pi can obtain needed resources, execute, return allocated resources, and terminate. When Pi terminates, Pi+1 can obtain its needed resources, and so on.

Safe, Unsafe , Deadlock State : 

Safe, Unsafe , Deadlock State

Resource-Allocation Graph Algorithm: 

Resource-Allocation Graph Algorithm Claim edge Pi  Rj indicated that process Pj may request resource Rj; represented by a dashed line. Claim edge converts to request edge when a process requests a resource. When a resource is released by a process, assignment edge reconverts to a claim edge. Resources must be claimed a priori in the system.

Banker’s Algorithm: 

Banker’s Algorithm Multiple instances. Each process must a priori claim maximum use. When a process requests a resource it may have to wait. When a process gets all its resources it must return them in a finite amount of time.

Data Structures for the Banker’s Algorithm : 

Data Structures for the Banker’s Algorithm Available: Vector of length m. If available [j] = k, there are k instances of resource type Rj available. Max: n x m matrix. If Max [i,j] = k, then process Pi may request at most k instances of resource type Rj. Allocation: n x m matrix. If Allocation[i,j] = k then Pi is currently allocated k instances of Rj. Need: n x m matrix. If Need[i,j] = k, then Pi may need k more instances of Rj to complete its task. Need [i,j] = Max[i,j] – Allocation [i,j]. Let n = number of processes, and m = number of resources types.

Safety Algorithm: 

Safety Algorithm 1. Let Work and Finish be vectors of length m and n, respectively. Initialize: Work = Available Finish [i] = false for i - 1,3, …, n. 2. Find and i such that both: (a) Finish [i] = false (b) Needi  Work If no such i exists, go to step 4. 3. Work = Work + Allocationi Finish[i] = true go to step 2. 4. If Finish [i] == true for all i, then the system is in a safe state.

Resource-Request Algorithm for Process Pi: 

Resource-Request Algorithm for Process Pi Request = request vector for process Pi. If Requesti [j] = k then process Pi wants k instances of resource type Rj. 1. If Requesti  Needi go to step 2. Otherwise, raise error condition, since process has exceeded its maximum claim. 2. If Requesti  Available, go to step 3. Otherwise Pi must wait, since resources are not available. 3. Pretend to allocate requested resources to Pi by modifying the state as follows: Available = Available = Requesti; Allocationi = Allocationi + Requesti; Needi = Needi – Requesti;; If safe  the resources are allocated to Pi. If unsafe  Pi must wait, and the old resource-allocation state is restored

Example of Banker’s Algorithm: 

Example of Banker’s Algorithm 5 processes P0 through P4; 3 resource types A (10 instances), B (5instances, and C (7 instances). Snapshot at time T0: Allocation Max Available A B C A B C A B C P0 0 1 0 7 5 3 3 3 2 P1 2 0 0 3 2 2 P2 3 0 2 9 0 2 P3 2 1 1 2 2 2 P4 0 0 2 4 3 3

Example (Cont.): 

Example (Cont.) The content of the matrix. Need is defined to be Max – Allocation. Need A B C P0 7 4 3 P1 1 2 2 P2 6 0 0 P3 0 1 1 P4 4 3 1 The system is in a safe state since the sequence andlt; P1, P3, P4, P2, P0andgt; satisfies safety criteria.

Example P1 Request (1,0,2) (Cont.): 

Example P1 Request (1,0,2) (Cont.) Check that Request  Available (that is, (1,0,2)  (3,3,2)  true. Allocation Need Available A B C A B C A B C P0 0 1 0 7 4 3 2 3 0 P1 3 0 2 0 2 0 P2 3 0 1 6 0 0 P3 2 1 1 0 1 1 P4 0 0 2 4 3 1 Executing safety algorithm shows that sequence andlt;P1, P3, P4, P0, P2andgt; satisfies safety requirement. Can request for (3,3,0) by P4 be granted? Can request for (0,2,0) by P0 be granted?

Deadlock Prevention: 

Deadlock Prevention Mutual Exclusion – not required for sharable resources; must hold for nonsharable resources. Hold and Wait – must guarantee that whenever a process requests a resource, it does not hold any other resources. Require process to request and be allocated all its resources before it begins execution, or allow process to request resources only when the process has none. Low resource utilization; starvation possible. Restrain the ways request can be made.

Deadlock Prevention (Cont.): 

Deadlock Prevention (Cont.) No Preemption – If a process that is holding some resources requests another resource that cannot be immediately allocated to it, then all resources currently being held are released. Preempted resources are added to the list of resources for which the process is waiting. Process will be restarted only when it can regain its old resources, as well as the new ones that it is requesting. Circular Wait – impose a total ordering of all resource types, and require that each process requests resources in an increasing order of enumeration.

Deadlock PreventionAttacking the Mutual Exclusion Condition: 

Deadlock Prevention Attacking the Mutual Exclusion Condition Some devices (such as printer) can be spooled only the printer daemon uses printer resource thus deadlock for printer eliminated Not all devices can be spooled Principle: avoid assigning resource when not absolutely necessary as few processes as possible actually claim the resource

Attacking the Hold and Wait Condition: 

Attacking the Hold and Wait Condition Require processes to request resources before starting a process never has to wait for what it needs Problems may not know required resources at start of run also ties up resources other processes could be using Variation: process must give up all resources then request all immediately needed

Attacking the No Preemption Condition: 

Attacking the No Preemption Condition This is not a viable option Consider a process given the printer halfway through its job now forcibly take away printer !!??

Attacking the Circular Wait Condition (1): 

Attacking the Circular Wait Condition (1) Normally ordered resources A resource graph (a) (b)

Attacking the Circular Wait Condition (1): 

Attacking the Circular Wait Condition (1) Summary of approaches to deadlock prevention

Other IssuesTwo-Phase Locking: 

Other Issues Two-Phase Locking Phase One process tries to lock all records it needs, one at a time if needed record found locked, start over (no real work done in phase one) If phase one succeeds, it starts second phase, performing updates releasing locks Note similarity to requesting all resources at once Algorithm works where programmer can arrange program can be stopped, restarted

Nonresource Deadlocks: 

Nonresource Deadlocks Possible for two processes to deadlock each is waiting for the other to do some task Can happen with semaphores each process required to do a down() on two semaphores (mutex and another) if done in wrong order, deadlock results


Starvation Algorithm to allocate a resource may be to give to shortest job first Works great for multiple short jobs in a system May cause long job to be postponed indefinitely even though not blocked Solution: First-come, first-serve policy

authorStream Live Help