Data Storage 1

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Data Storage: 

Data Storage Willis Kim 14 May 2005

Types of storages: 

Types of storages Direct Attached Storage – storage hardware that connects to a single server Storage Area Network - connects multiple servers to a pool of storage over a private network Network Attached Storage - connects multiple servers to a pool of storage over a network

Direct Attached Storage : 

Direct Attached Storage Personal storage device using fire wire or USB 2.0 USB 1.0 is very slow for large-scale back up SCSI disk array PCI SCSI controller Supports RAID

RAID: 

RAID Advantages RAID 0 offers great performance, both in read and write operations. There is no overhead caused by parity controls. All storage capacity can be used, there is no disk overhead. The technology is easy to implement. Disadvantages RAID 0 is not fault-tolerant. If one disk fails, all data in the RAID 0 array are lost. It should not be used on mission-critical systems. Use RAID 0 is ideal for non-critical storage of data that have to be read/written at a high speed In a RAID 0 system, data are split up in blocks that get written across all the drives in the array. By using multiple disks (at least 2) at the same time, RAID 0 offers superior I/O performance. This performance can be enhanced further by using multiple controllers, ideally one controller per disk.

Slide5: 

Advantages RAID 1 offers excellent read speed and a write-speed that is comparable to that of a single disk. In case a disk fails, data do not have to be rebuild, they just have to be copied to the replacement disk. RAID 1 is a very simple technology. Disadvantages The main disadvantage is that the effective storage capacity is only half of the total disk capacity because all data get written twice. Software RAID 1 solutions do not always allow a hot swap of a failed disk (meaning it cannot be replaced while the server keeps running). Ideally a hardware controller is used. Use RAID-1 is ideal for mission critical storage. It is also suitable for small servers in which only two disks will be used. Available on Windows Server (2000 and 2003) Data are stored twice by writing them to both the data disk (or set of data disks) and a mirror disk (or set of disks) . If a disk fails, the controller uses either the data drive or the mirror drive for data recovery and continues operation. You need at least 2 disks for a RAID 1 array.

Slide6: 

Advantages RAID-3 provides high throughput (both read and write) for large data transfers. Disk failures do not significantly slow down throughput. Disadvantages This technology is fairly complex and too resource intensive to be done in software. Performance is slower for random, small I/O operations. On RAID 3 systems, datablocks are subdivided (striped) and written in parallel on two or more drives. An additional drive stores parity information. You need at least 3 disks for a RAID 3 array. Since parity is used, a RAID 3 stripe set can withstand a single disk failure without losing data or access to data.

Slide7: 

Advantages Read data transactions are very fast while write data transaction are somewhat slower (due to the parity that has to be calculated). Disadvantages Disk failures have an effect on throughput, although this is still acceptable. Like RAID 3, this is complex technology. Use RAID 5 is a good all-round system that combines efficient storage with excellent security and decent performance. It is ideal for file and application servers. RAID 5 is the most common secure RAID level. It is similar to RAID-3 except that data are transferred to disks by independent read and write operations (not in parallel). The data chunks that are written are also larger. Instead of a dedicated parity disk, parity information is spread across all the drives. You need at least 3 disks for a RAID 5 array.

Slide8: 

RAID 10 combines the advantages (and disadvantages) of RAID 0 and RAID 1 in a single system. It provides security by mirroring all data on a secondary set of disks (disk 3 and 4 in the drawing below) while using striping across each set of disks to speed up datatransfers.

What is SAN?: 

What is SAN? A SAN, or storage area network, is a dedicated network that is separate from LANs and WANs.  It generally serves to interconnect the storage-related resources that are connected to one or more servers.  It is often characterized by its high interconnection data rates (Gigabits/sec) between member storage peripherals and by its highly scalable architecture.  Though typically spoken of in terms of hardware, SANs very often include specialized software for their management, monitoring and configuration.

SAN Topology: 

SAN Topology

SAN Example: 

SAN Example

What is NAS?: 

What is NAS? Network-attached storage (NAS) is a concept of shared storage on a network. It communicates using Network File System (NFS) for UNIX+ environments, Common Internet File System (CIFS) for Microsoft Windows environments, FTP, http, and other networking protocols. NAS brings platform independence and increased performance to a network, as if it were an attached appliance.

NAS Topology: 

NAS Topology

NAS Example: 

NAS Example Raw disk space = 10 shelfs x 14 disks per shelf x 144 GB per disk = 20,160 GB ~ 20 TB (raw) Useable space = 10%(OS) +20% (Snapreserve + Parity drives + Spare Drives)

Complete Storage Topology: 

NAS (File) Complete Storage Topology SAN NAS Departmental

Network Appliance: 

Network Appliance

Common Internet File System: 

Common Internet File System As known as Server message block (SMB) is a network protocol mainly applied to share files, printers, serial ports, and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network. It is mainly used by Microsoft Windows equipped computers. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CIFS

Network Appliance – RAID 4: 

Network Appliance – RAID 4

NAS Demonstration Topology: 

NAS Demonstration Topology

NAS Demonstration: 

NAS Demonstration Sharing file using CIFS Command Line RAID 4 Failure recovery Power supply Disk

Bonus Stuff: 

Bonus Stuff Lookout Google Desktop

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