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WASTE MINIMIZATION IN DAIRY INDUSTRYINTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION The dairy industry involves processing raw milk into products such as consumer milk, butter, cheese, yogurt, condensed milk, dried milk (milk powder), and ice cream, using processes such as chilling, pasteurization, and homogenization. Typical by-products include buttermilk, whey, and their derivatives. Dairy industries have shown tremendous growth in size and number inmost countries of the world. These industries discharge wastewater which is characterized by high chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, nutrients, and organic and inorganic contents. Such wastewaters, if discharged without proper treatment, severely pollute receiving water bodies.DAIRY PROCESSING: DAIRY PROCESSING Dairy processing plants can be divided into two categories: Fluid milk processing involving the pasteurization and processing of raw milk into liquid milk for direct consumption, as well as cream, flavored milk, and fermented products such as buttermilk and yogurt. Industrial milk processing involving the pasteurization and processing of raw milk into value-added dairy products such as cheese and casein, butter and other milk fats, milk powder and condensed milk, whey powder and other dairy ingredients, and ice cream and other frozen dairy products.DAIRY PROCESSING ACTIVITIES: DAIRY PROCESSING ACTIVITIES Raw Milk Collection, Reception and Storage Separation and Standardization Homogenization Heat Treatment and Cooling of Milk Products Milk and Dairy Product Production Milk production Cheese production Butter production Milk powder production Packaging of Milk and Dairy ProductsFLOW CHART OF DAIRY PROCESSING ACTIVITIES: FLOW CHART OF DAIRY PROCESSING ACTIVITIESRaw Milk Collection, Reception and Storage: Raw Milk Collection, Reception and Storage The first steps in preserving the quality of milk should be taken at the farm. To achieve the best quality raw milk at intake, milking conditions must be as hygienic as possible. The milk must be chilled to below + 4oC immediately after milking and be kept at this temperature during transport to the dairy. Raw milk is collected and transported to the processing plant in stainless steel Separation and Standardization Centrifugal separation and clarification is common in dairy processing to ensure further processing of standard products avoiding quality variations. Standardization of the dry matter for fat, protein, and lactose content of the milk usually takes place in the production phase of most dairy products Homogenization The aim of homogenization is to prevent gravity separation of the fat in the product and to improve the syneresis stability of mainly cultured products. The homogenizer consists of a high pressure pump and homogenizing valve driven by a powerful electric motor. MILK PRODUCTION: MILK PRODUCTION The processes taking place at a typical milk plant include: receipt and filtration/clarification of the raw milk; separation of all or part of the milk fat (for standardisation of market milk, production of cream and butter and other fat-based products, and production of milk powders); pasteurisation; homogenisation (if required); deodorisation (if required); further product-specific processing ; Figure: Milk production line packaging and storage, including cold storage for perishable products; distribution of final products .BUTTER PRODUCTION: BUTTER PRODUCTION The butter-making process, whether by batch or continuous methods, consists of the following steps: preparation of the cream; destabilisation and breakdown of the fat and water emulsion; aggregation and concentration of the fat particles; formation of a stable emulsion; packaging and storage; distribution.CHEESE PRODUCTION: CHEESE PRODUCTION Virtually all cheese is made by coagulating milk protein (casein) in a manner that traps milk solids and milk fat into a curd matrix. This curd matrix is then consolidated to express the liquid fraction, cheese whey. Cheese whey contains those milk solids which are not held in the curd mass, in particular most of the milk sugar (lactose) and a number of soluble proteins. Milk receipt, pre-treatment and standardisation Pasteurisation Addition of starter culture Coagulation Extraction of whey Cutting and cooking of curd Salting Ripening Packaging DistributionMILK POWDER PRODUCTION: MILK POWDER PRODUCTION The milk is preheated in tubular heat exchangers before being dried. The preheated milk is fed to an evaporator to increase the concentration of total solids. The solids concentration that can be reached depends on the efficiency of the equipment and the amount of heat that can be applied without unduly degrading the milk protein. The milk concentrate is then pumped to the atomizer of a drying chamber. In the drying chamber the milk is dispersed as a fine fog-like mist into a rapidly moving hot air stream, which causes the individual mist droplets to instantly evaporate. Milk powder falls to the bottom of the chamber, from where it is removed. Fine milk powder particles are carried out of the chamber along with the hot air stream and collected in cyclone separators.PACKAGING OF MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS: PACKAGING OF MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS Packaging protects the product from bacteriological, light, and oxygen contamination. Liquid milk products may be packed in a beverage carton, which is mainly paperboard covered by a thin layer of food-grade polyethylene on either side. Milk cartons for long-life milk have an additional layer of aluminum foil. Many other packaging materials are also used, ranging from simple plastic pouches to glass bottles, PET laminates and PVC bott les.WASTEWATER GENERATION: WASTEWATER GENERATION The dairy industry is one of the most polluting of industries, not only in terms of the volume of effluent generated, but also in terms of its characteristics as well. A chain of operations involving receiving and storing of raw materials, processing of raw materials into finished products, packaging and storing of finished products, and a group of other ancillary operations (e.g., heat transfer and cleaning) will produce wastewater.WASTEWATER GENERATION: WASTEWATER GENERATION In the dairy industry, some amount of wastewater gets produced during starting, equilibrating, stopping, and rinsing of the processing units. However, a majority of wastewater gets produced during cleaning operations, especially between product changes when different types of products are produced in a specific production unit and clean-up operations. Dairy processing effluents are generated in an intermittent way and the flow rates of these effluents change significantly. The quality and quantity of the product content in the dairy wastewater at a given time changes with the application of another technological cycle in the processing line.SOURCES OF WASTEWATER: SOURCES OF WASTEWATEREFFLUENT GENERATION FROM VARIOUS UNITS OF MILK PROCESSING. : EFFLUENT GENERATION FROM VARIOUS UNITS OF MILK PROCESSING . RECEIVING STORAGE TANK CLARIFICATION/STANDARDIZATION PASTEURIZATION HOMOGENISATION DEODORISATION STORAGE TANK PACKING STORAGE TRANSPORTATION DS WW DS WW DS WW DS WW, CW, ST DS WW ST, DS WW DS WW DS WW DS WW PROCESS EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF DS-Detergents and Sanitizing Agents, WW-Wash Water, ST-Steam, CW-Cooling Water.CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTEWATER: CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTEWATER Dairy wastewater contains milk solids, detergents, sanitizers, milk wastes, and cleaning water. It is characterized by high concentrations of nutrients, and organic and inorganic contents. Salting activities during cheese production may result in high salinity levels. Wastewater may also contain acids, alkali with a number of active ingredients, and disinfectants, as well as a significant microbiological load, pathogenic viruses, and bacteria. Other wastewater streams include cooling water from utilities, storm water, and sanitary sewage.CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTEWATER: CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTEWATER Parameters UNITS GUIDELINE VALUE pH - 4-12 Suspended solids mg/l 24-5700 BOD5 mg/l 450-4,790 COD mg/l 80 - 95000 Total nitrogen mg/l 15-180 Total phosphorus mg/l 11-160 Oil and grease mg/l 10 Total coliform bacteria Mpn /100ml 400 Magnesium mg/l 25-49 Potassium mg/l 11-160 Chloride mg/l 48-469 Calcium mg/l 57-112EFFECTS WHEN WASTEWATER DISCHARGED TO LAND: EFFECTS WHEN WASTEWATER DISCHARGED TO LAND Dissolved salts contained in dairy plant wastewater can adversely affect soil structure if wastewater is used to irrigate land. Wastewater can also leach into underlying groundwater and affect its quality. High salt levels affect the type of vegetation that grow. Over-irrigation may cause the underlying water table to rise, resulting in further deterioration of surface soils and vegetation.EFFECTS WHEN WASTEWATER DISCHARGED TO SEWER: EFFECTS WHEN WASTEWATER DISCHARGED TO SEWER The volume and organic load of wastewater from just one dairy factory during peak season may well exceed the township's domestic waste. This may overload the sewage treatment plant, cause odors and give rise to poor effluent quality. Domestic wastewaters have a BOD5 concentration of about 250 to 300 mg/L but in peak season a large dairy factory could be discharging two mega liters of wastewater at BOD5 of 2,000 mg/L each day – the additional load on a sewerage plant is equivalent to an extra 16,000 persons which is very difficult to treat.WASTE MINIMIZATION: WASTE MINIMIZATION Waste minimization measures may include: reducing use of water reducing use of chemicals or substitution of mineral salts – for example, potassium in place of sodium compounds recycling water and chemicals recovery and reuse of product from first reuse reuse/reprocessing of off-spec material recovering and reusing spilled raw materials and products.AVOIDING WASTE DURING LIQUID MILK PRODUCTION: AVOIDING WASTE DURING LIQUID MILK PRODUCTION Liquid milk production may lead to the generation of odour, wastewater, noise and solid waste. Suggestions for avoiding wastes during liquid milk production are given in Figure . AVOIDING WASTE DURING BUTTER PRODUCTION: AVOIDING WASTE DURING BUTTER PRODUCTION Ways to prevent the build up of surface deposits include: minimisation of surface area ·prevention of build-up of milk stone deposits maintenance of butter churns ·correct preparation before filling not over-working the batch To avoid spills, buttermilk collection facilities should be large enough to hold all buttermilk discharged. Buttermilk should be dried or used as animal feed and solids recovered from butter wash water also may be sold as stock feed. Suggestions for avoiding wastes during butter production are summarised in Figure .AVOIDING WASTE DURING CHEESE PRODUCTION: AVOIDING WASTE DURING CHEESE PRODUCTION Making cheese generates a large volume of by-products such as whey. Waste reduction can be achieved by: not overfilling cheese vats to stop curd loss completely removing whey and curds from vats before rinsing segregating all whey drained from cheese sweeping up pressings (particles) screening all liquid streams to collect fines. These suggestions are summarised in FigureAVOIDING WASTE DURING MILK POWDER PRODUCTION: AVOIDING WASTE DURING MILK POWDER PRODUCTION It is suggested that evaporators be operated to: maintain a liquid level low enough to stop product boil-over run to specified length – excessively long runs with higher than specified running rates lead to blocked tubes which not only produce high pollution, but are difficult and time consuming to clean use effluent entrainment separators to avoid carry-over of milk droplets during condensation of evaporated water minimize air emissions by using fabric filters or wet scrubbers. These suggestions are summarized in FigureREUSE AND RECYCLE: REUSE AND RECYCLE Many dairy plants have technologies in place for recovering wastewater and/or for reuse in the dairy plant. Reuse and recycling can considerably decrease the volume of mains water required to operate the plant. Reuse and recycling reduce the cost of both mains water and wastewater disposal. Fats, milk solids and minerals can also be recovered from wastewater and recycled – either at the dairy plant or offsite. Cleaning chemicals can also be recovered and reused on site.BY-PRODUCT RECOVERY: BY-PRODUCT RECOVERY A dairy by-product may be defined as a product of commercial value produced today the manufacture of a main product. In recent years there has been wide spread and increasing interest through out the world in creating newer channels of utilization for the by-products of the dairy industry. Conversion of edible substances into non-food items is not ordinarily justifiable especially in countries where there is an overall shortage of milk supplies. It has always been realized that economic disposal of by-products is an essential perquisite to profitable dairying . DAIRY BY-PRODUCTS: DAIRY BY-PRODUCTS MAIN PRODUCT BY PRODUCT PRODUCTS MADE CREAM SKIM MILK Flavored milk Sterilized flavored milk Cultured Buttermilk Concentrated sour skim milk Plain and Sweetened Condensed skim milk Dried skim milk or Skim milk powder or Non Fat Dry Milk (NFDM) Cottage cheese, edible casein BUTTER BUTTER MILK Condensed buttermilk Dried buttermilk Soft cheese DAIRY BY-PRODUCTS: DAIRY BY-PRODUCTS MAIN PRODUCT BY PRODUCT PRODUCTS MADE CHEESE, CASIN, PANEER WHEY Whey beverage, Yeast whey Plain and sweetened condensed whey whey protein concentrate, lactose whey protein concentrate, whey paste, lactose Ricotta cheese GHEE GHEE RESIDUE Sweetmeat, Toffee, Sweet pasteUTILIZATION OF DAIRY WASTE FROM MILK INDUSTRY IN PRODUCTION OF GLYCERINE AND BIODIESEL: UTILIZATION OF DAIRY WASTE FROM MILK INDUSTRY IN PRODUCTION OF GLYCERINE AND BIODIESEL Part1. Preparation of oil from dairy waste product 1.1 Batch extraction 1.2 Continuous extraction Part 2. Preparation of biodiesel and glycerin by trans esterification reaction. 2.1 Analysis of residue free fatty acid content in extracted dairy waste oil. 2.2 Study the effect of catalysts on trans esterification reaction Part 3. Purification of crude biodiesel and glycerin. 3.1 The purification of crude biodiesel 3.2 The purification of crude glycerin Part 4 Quality check of biodiesel and glycerin 4.1 Purity check of biodiesel 4.2 Analysis an impurity in glycerin SOXHLET APPARATUSUTILIZATION AND TREATMENT OF DAIRY EFFLUENT THROUGH BIOGAS GENERATION: UTILIZATION AND TREATMENT OF DAIRY EFFLUENT THROUGH BIOGAS GENERATION Biogas generation from dairy effluent has been viewed with the aim of control of water pollution through treatment of dairy waste as well as generation of biogas. Biogas, a mixture consisting primarily of methane and carbon dioxide, is produced from dairy wastes through anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion not only reduce the COD of an effluent, but also little microbial biomass is produced by the process. The gas generation fluctuated between 0.5m 3 /day to maximum of 4.5m 3 /day with an average of 3m 3 /day. The biggest advantage is energy recovery in the form of methane and up to 95 percent of the organic matter in a waste stream can be converted in to biogas. DAIRY SUMP PIT ANEROBIC FILTER BIOGAS STORAGE TANK EFFLUENT INLET SAMPLING POINT OUTLET SAMPLING POINT BIOGASTREATMENT OF DAIRY EFFLUENT: TREATMENT OF DAIRY EFFLUENT The highly variable nature of dairy wastewaters in terms of volumes and flow rates and in terms of pH and suspended solid (SS) content makes the choice of an effective wastewater treatment regime difficult. Because dairy wastewaters are highly biodegradable, they can be effectively treated with biological wastewater treatment systems, but can pose a potential environmental hazard if not treated properly.FLOW DIAGRAM OF POTENTIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR A SMALL SCALE DAIRY PLANT: FLOW DIAGRAM OF POTENTIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR A SMALL SCALE DAIRY PLANTBIOLOGICAL TREATMENT SYSTEMS USED TO TREAT DAIRY EFFLUENT: BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT SYSTEMS USED TO TREAT DAIRY EFFLUENTCONCLUSION: CONCLUSIONREFERNCES: REFERNCES Dairy Industry Effluents Treatment . - Abdulrzzak Alturkmani , Dr. Eng., Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest , Romania 2007. Water quality protection note. Government Of Western Australia , July 2004 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN DAIRY PROCESSING. Written by J. W. Barnett, S. L. Robertson and J. M. Russell, Environment Portfolio,New Zealand Dairy Research Institute, Palmerston North. ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES FOR THE DAIRY PROCESSING INDUSTRY. Environment Protection Authorit , State Government of Victoria, June 1997 Environmental, Health, and Safety Guidelines, DAIRY PROCESSING,APRIL 30, 2007 Cleaner Production Assessment in Dairy Processing, COWI Consulting Engineers and Planners AS, Denmark UTILIZATION OF DAIRY WASTE FROM MILK INDUSTRY IN PRODUCTION OF GLYCERINE AND BIODIESEL Pornpimol Muangthai * , Natthamon Depatii , Arthid Kanthuskampol and Somporn Tatriyasri , Thailand 23-29 August 2009 Utilization and treatment of dairy effluent through biogas generation-A case study, Bhumesh Singh Bhadouria , Sai.V.S , INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Volume 1, No 7, 2011PowerPoint Presentation: THANK YOU You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.