The Mystery of Caves and Caverns

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The Mystery of Caves and Caverns : 

The Mystery of Caves and Caverns By Tamika Albright

How does this happen? : 

How does this happen?

How Caves Are Formed : 

How Caves Are Formed Water falls to the earth and collects CO2 from animals and plant materials to form a weak carbonic acid

Slide 5: 

As water travels through the ground, it collects with pools of water already in the ground. The slightly acidic water slowly dissolves the rock.

Slide 6: 

The water table falls and leaves cavities in the earth.

Slide 7: 

After the water table falls, the cavities fill with air. The ground water, rich with calcium carbonate after filtering through the limestone, falls to the stone floor, leaving small deposits of the calcium carbonate. Over a long period of time, the deposits form speleothems.

Speleothems : 

Speleothems Speleothems – Collective term for cave formations (Speleo – Cave…..Thema – Deposit) Stalactites and stalagmites are the most common form of speleothems

Stalactites and Stalagmites : 

Stalactites and Stalagmites Stalactites hang “tight” to the ceiling Stalagmites “mightily” reach for the ceiling Columns form when stalactites and stalagmites join together

Other Speleothems : 

Other Speleothems Gypsum Flowstone Popcorn Helectites Soda Straws Pearls Draperies Showerheads

Gypsum Flower, Flowstone, Popcorn, and Helectites : 

Gypsum Flower, Flowstone, Popcorn, and Helectites

Soda Straws, Pearls, Draperies, and Showerheads : 

Soda Straws, Pearls, Draperies, and Showerheads

Unusual Cave Formations : 

Unusual Cave Formations Butterfly of Sonora Types of stones found in formations (largest to smallest): banded onyx, rose quartz, and sodalite

Show Caves in Texas : 

Show Caves in Texas Natural Bridge Caverns Wonder Caverns – Only one in nation formed by an earthquake! Longhorn Caverns Caverns of Sonora Cave Without A Name Innerspace Caverns Cascade Caverns

Active Caves : 

Active Caves “Active caves” are those in which there is still growth of speleothems. When touring a cave, visitors are advised to touch nothing because the oil from their skin will stop the growth of formations. The oil and dirt prevents the water from reaching the growing formation. If there is significant touching of a formation, it will die. Most show caves are active caves.

Spelunker’s Motto: : 

Spelunker’s Motto: Take nothing but pictures, leave nothing but footprints and leave no trace of your visit.

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