Miller Fat Substitution in Food

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Fat Substitution in Food: 

Fat Substitution in Food Miranda MillerKraft Foods R&D ACCA Seminar SeriesOctober 4, 2005


Agenda Why Fat Replacement? Basic Fats and Oils Technology Functions of Fat in Food Fat Mimetic Technology Reduced Calorie Fats and Fat Substitutes Replacing Trans and Saturated Fat

Overweight and Obesity in America: 

Over last 25 years, been a dramatic increase in percent of population in North America who are overweight and obese. Jane Doe is 5’5” and weighed 130 lbs (BMI= 22) in 1980, in 2004 she weighs 160 lbs (BMI=27). Increase in caloric consumption= 12 calories/day over 25 years 2 Life Savors ¼ cup of skim milk Decrease in activity level= 10 minutes more commuting/day over 25 years How much would Jane have to change her eating behaviors to gain this weight? Overweight and Obesity in America

July is National Hot Dog Month!!!: 

July is National Hot Dog Month!!! 80 % of the people at a baseball game eat a Hot Dog. 5 Billion Hot Dogs eaten between Memorial Day and Labor Day. 50 million Hot Dogs eaten every day in the US: that’s 80 Hot Dogs/person/year!! 1 Hot Dog has about 150 Calories.

Comparison of Hot Dogs: 

Comparison of Hot Dogs Beef/Pork Hot Dog:150 Cal; 5 grams Protein; 1 gram CHO; 13 g Fat; 81% Cal from fat 4.8 g Sat Fat; 6.2 g MUFA; 1.2 g PUFA Turkey Hot Dog:102 Cal; 6 g Protein; 1 g CHO; 8 g Fat(71%) 2.4 g Sat Fat; 2.7 g MUFA; 2.1 g PUFA Chicken Hot Dog:115 Cal; 6 g PRO; 3 g CHO; 9 g Fat(70%) 2.5g Sat Fat; 3.8 g MUFA; 2.8 g PUFA

Weight Gain: 

Weight Gain 3500 extra Calories = 1 pound of Fat Example: 80 hot dogs per person/year above required Calories 80 dogs x 150 Calories = 12000 Cal/year 12000/3500 = 3.5 # / year

Why Fat Replacement?: 

Why Fat Replacement? High fat diets are linked to obesity and cardiovascular disease There is an epidemic of overweight and obesity in the US About 65% are overweight (BMI  25) (BMI = weight (kg) / Height 2 (m2) About 23% are obese (BMI  30) RDA for fat is 30% of calories Current consumption is somewhere near 38%

Show Obesity Maps: 

Show Obesity Maps

Consumers Are Paying Attention to What They Eat: 

Consumers Are Paying Attention to What They Eat “A person should be very cautious serving food with…”

Some Other Consumer Facts: 

Some Other Consumer Facts Concern about fat peaked in mid 90’s 51% very cautious in 1994 31% very cautious in 2004 Low carb diets may be the diet du jour but 73% consume reduced fat food 78% are trying to cut down fat in their diet 61% trying to avoid trans fat And 70% are concerned with calories

Basic Fats and Oils Technology: 

Basic Fats and Oils Technology

Lipids: Definition: 

Lipids: Definition A family of compounds soluble in organic compounds but not in water 3 classes of food lipids: Triglycerides: 95 % of lipids in foods Phospholipids: e.g..: lecithin Sterols: e.g..: cholesterol

Triglycerides Are Esters of Glycerol and Fatty Acids: 

Triglycerides Are Esters of Glycerol and Fatty Acids condensation reaction Structures linked by ester bonds (R-COOR') and water is released Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids Triglyceride + 3 water molecules

Some Basic Facts About Fats: 

Some Basic Facts About Fats Major source plants (soybean, cottonseed, corn, palm) At room temperature, Oil = liquid, Fat = solid (m.p. varies) Calorie-dense (9 Kcal/gram) vs. carbs & protein (4 Kcal/g) Per capita consumption ~80 lb/year (significant inc. since 1980) 38% of dietary calories come from fat (current RDA is 30%) Saturated and trans-fat consumption increase CHD risk Unsaturated oils (olive, fish oils) appear to reduce CHD risk

Fatty Acids Vary in Chain Length and Saturation: 

Fatty Acids Vary in Chain Length and Saturation saturated stearic acid m.p. 73 oC “cis” monounsaturated oleic acid m.p. 5.5 oC Longer Chain  Higher Melting Point Add Double Bonds  Lower Melting Point

Poly-Unsaturation Confers Liquidity (And Reactivity Toward Oxygen): 

Poly-Unsaturation Confers Liquidity (And Reactivity Toward Oxygen) More Double Bonds Lower Oxidative and Thermal Stability

Hydrogenation Improves Stability BUT…: 

Hydrogenation Improves Stability BUT… Trans fats behave more like saturated fat H2

Functions of Fat in Food: 

Functions of Fat in Food

Nutritional Role: 

Nutritional Role Source of essential fatty acids Linoleic and linolenic Carriers for fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K Important source of energy 9 Kcal/g vs. 4 Kcal/g for carbs or protein

Physical and Chemical Functions: 

Physical and Chemical Functions Chemical Properties of Fat or Oil Length of carbon chain Degree of unsaturation Distribution of fatty acids Cis-trans configuration Crystal state of fat Physical Properties of Foods Rheological properties: viscosity, plasticity, yield stress, thixotropy, gelation, spreadability, lubricity, hardness, stringiness Thermal properties: melting characteristics, heat transfer coefficient, solid fat index, softening point, polymorphism Processing behavior: heat stability, viscosity, crystallization, aeration Post-processing and shelf stability: shear sensitivity, tackiness, migration, dispersion, and stability (physical, chemical, microbiological)

Sensory Functions of Fat in Products: 

Sensory Functions of Fat in Products Appearance Gloss, translucency, color, surface uniformity, crystallinity Texture Viscosity, elasticity, hardness Flavor Intensity of flavors, flavor and aroma release, flavor profile, flavor development, time intensity relationships Mouthfeel Meltability, creaminess, lubricity, thickness, degree of mouthcoating, mouth warming or cooling

Many Fats and Oils in Food Exist As Emulsions: 

Many Fats and Oils in Food Exist As Emulsions Discontinuous phase Internal phase Dispersed phase Continuous phase External phase Dispersion Medium

Emulsion Types: 

Emulsion Types O/W EMULSION W/O EMULSION OIL OIL WATER WATER Examples: Mayonnaise Milk Salad Dressing Coffee Whiteners Examples: Margarine Tablespread Butter

Microstructure of Mayonnaise: 

Microstructure of Mayonnaise

Fat Replacers: 

Fat Replacers

Historical Context: 

Historical Context Consumers became aware of impact of diet on health in 80’s Proposed energy from fat in diet reduced to 30% (from 40-49%) Began affecting consumer attitudes Challenge was to produce low-fat products with physical and sensory characteristics as close as possible to full-fat quality “Breakthrough” came with introduction of a microparticulated protein ingredient called “Simplesse” The search for the next magic bullet ingredient followed Subsequent development effort revealed consequences of removing fat from a product Alternative ingredients or processes had to be developed as all the attributes of fat became recognized


Classification Over 200 commercial fat replacement ingredients Carbohydrate-based Starch and starch hydrolysis products Fiber based (gums, gels, thickeners, bulking agents) Protein-based Specially processed proteins Protein/fiber combinations Lipid-based Synthetic fat substitutes Low-calorie fats Emulsifiers

Approach to Fat Replacement Has Changed: 

Approach to Fat Replacement Has Changed Late 80’s to Mid 90’s Fat free products with full fat qualityusing magic bullettechnologies 21st Century Healthy products with balanced macronutrients Fat is a necessary part of diet Need to cut down bad fats: saturated and trans Good tasting calorie-reduced light products

Some Basic Terminology: 

Some Basic Terminology Fat Replacer Blanket term for any ingredient used to replace fat Fat Substitute Synthetic compound used as direct 1-for-1 replacement Similar chemical structure to fat but resist digestion Fat Mimetic Non-fat substance requiring high water content Replace some (not all) functions of fat in products Low-calorie fat Synthetic triglyceride combining unconventional fatty acids resulting in reduced calorie content Fat Extender System of ingredients used in combination with standard fats or oils to achieve fat reduction

Fat Replacement Strategies: 

Fat Replacement Strategies Direct Fat Removal First strategy to evolve in rush to comply with nutritional recommendations in 80’s Worked well for milk, some dairy products, some processed meat… but not much else Formulation Optimization Water replaces fat in higher fat products Optimization with functional ingredients to stabilize product Processing Technology Vary processing conditions (time, temp, pressure, etc.) to cause interactions in ingredients or change functionalities Holistic Approach No single replacer can do it all

Fat Mimetic Technology: 

Fat Mimetic Technology

Fat Reduction Success Story: 

Fat Reduction Success Story Miracle Whip brand salad dressing was one of Kraft's earliest successes at fat reduction, being introduced in the 1930's Miracle Whip was formulated to provide about half the fat of conventional mayonnaise using a starch gel at about one tenth the level of the fat that it was replacing Miracle Whip’s success over its 70+ year lifetimeis in part due to the fact that it did not try to duplicate the product that it was replacing, but rather developed its own unique flavor and mouthfeel which is a function of the newmacronutrient composition of the product

Spoonable Dressings Example: 

Spoonable Dressings Example

Full Fat Emulsion Products Have Multiple Phases: 

Full Fat Emulsion Products Have Multiple Phases (20%) (80%) (80%) (20%)

Something Needs to Replace Fat in Lower Fat Foods: 

Something Needs to Replace Fat in Lower Fat Foods Passive Active

Fat Mimetic Mechanisms for Emulsion Products: 

Fat Mimetic Mechanisms for Emulsion Products There are at least 5 mechanisms by which fat mimetic ingredients act to provide fat texture: Entanglement Network Gels Particle Gels Aggregates Non-interacting Particles Each provides different rheological properties to a product that the mimic dispersed or continuous phase of an emulsion product such as mayonnaise

Entanglement and Gelation Mimic Continuous Phase: 

Entanglement and Gelation Mimic Continuous Phase Entanglement Long non-gelling, non-interacting polymers that have large spheres of hydration Provide slipperiness and viscosity Mimic the continuous phase of mayonnaise Examples are xanthan gum,  carrageenan, polydextrose Network Gels Polymers interact with each other to form more or less permanent junction zones Provide yield stress and gel structure Mimic the “cut” of a mayonnaise Examples are pectin, alginates, gelatin

Particle Gels Mimic Dispersed Phase: 

Particle Gels Mimic Dispersed Phase Network forms between polymers but is not continuous throughout the system Simplesse, “breakthrough” fat mimetic, is particle gel made by microparticulation of whey protein Mimic the dispersed phase of mayonnaise Performance affected by size, shape, surface properties, and rigidity (or deformability) of the particle Examples: colloidal cellulose and small particle starch Can also be formed by shearing network gels Provide creaminess and body

Interactions Between Particles (or Not): 

Interactions Between Particles (or Not) Particle Gel Aggregates Discrete crystalline or gel particles that reassociate with each other to form aggregate Similar in functionality and constraints to particle gels If aggregate is continuous, can mimic both dispersed and continuous phases Examples include starch gel, starch hydrolysates or microcrystalline cellulose (cellulose gel/cellulose gum) Non-Interacting Particles Inert particles Provide opacity and reduce cohesiveness Examples include uncooked or retrograded starch, crystalline cellulose

Microbiological Considerations: 

Microbiological Considerations Regardless of the mechanism, water is the main ingredient that replaces fat Fat mimetics hold water so that it builds texture like fat Shelf life and microbiological safety are affected by combination of water activity, acidity, salt, preservatives, heat treatment Addition of water requires increasing other safety measures Typically acidity of aqueous phase is increased Control of pH is critical Strong acidic notes affect overall sensory quality

Fat Mimetic Systems - KFM: 

Fat Mimetic Systems - KFM Ingredients: Water, modified food starch, sugar, high fructose corn starch, vinegar, soybean oil*, salt, cellulose gel, natural flavor, artificial flavor, egg yolks*, xanthan gum, mustard flour, lactic acid, cellulose gum, phosphoric acid, vitamin E acetate, lemon juice concentrate, dried garlic, dried onions spice, yellow 6, beta carotene, blue 1, with potassium sorbate and calcium disodium EDTA as preservatives *Trivial source of fat and cholesterol

Current Fat Mimetics Cannot Supply Full Fat Quality: 

Current Fat Mimetics Cannot Supply Full Fat Quality

Approach to Fat Mimetics Has Evolved: 

Approach to Fat Mimetics Has Evolved Because of “missing attributes”, most food manufacturers have taken a step back from fat free The learnings from fat free days have allowed creation of more and better light, low-fat and reduced-fat products

Reduced Calorie Fat Substitutes: 

Reduced Calorie Fat Substitutes

What Is the Logic Behind Fat Substitutes?: 

What Is the Logic Behind Fat Substitutes? Think like a lipase… ...what would make a triglyceride less appealing?

Olestra Is Only FDA-approved Noncaloric Fat Substitute: 

Olestra Is Only FDA-approved Noncaloric Fat Substitute Chemistry: Different Backbone Sucrose: a disaccharide from glucose and fructose 8 hydroxyl groups for esterification Fatty acid esters at 6 to 8 sites Typical triglyceride Sucrose Octaoleate

Olestra Approved for Savory Snacks: 

Olestra Approved for Savory Snacks Current approval only in prepackaged ready-to-eat savory (i.e. salty or piquant but not sweet) snacks and prepackaged, un-popped popcorn kernels that are ready-to-heat Approved as food additive for savory snacks (chips, crackers, etc) in 1996 Ruling expanded in 2004 to include popcorn In 2003, FDA removed requirement for advisory label warning on products made with olestra

Absorption Decreases With More Esters : 

Absorption Decreases With More Esters Mattson and Volpenhein, J. Nutr. 1972

Does Olestra Function the Same As Triglyceride? : 

Does Olestra Function the Same As Triglyceride? Melting properties vary with fatty acid comp Composition limited to C16-C22, specified degree of unsaturation Physiological stability (measured by stiffness) requires incomplete melting Crystallinity, and polymorphic behavior of crystals, are not the same as TG Properties of certain fats (e.g. Cocoa butter) rely on specific crystal structures Emulsion properties (e.g. Size of droplet) partially dependent on viscosity

Triglycerides Can Be Low Calorie Too!: 

Triglycerides Can Be Low Calorie Too! Commercial options: Salatrim or Caprenin TG containing mixed long chain saturated fatty acid (LCFA, C18-22) with short or medium chain fatty acids (SCFA, C2-4 or MCFA, C6-10) Preferred Comp: 1 LCFA: 2 S/MCFA Approximate Caloric Content: 5 cal/g Low Cal due to poor absorption of LCFA

Salatrim/Caprenin Functionality: 

Salatrim/Caprenin Functionality Melting properties controlled primarily by length of short or medium chain fatty acid Melting Point (°C)

Replacing Trans and Saturated Fat: 

Replacing Trans and Saturated Fat

Trans Fatty Acids in Shortening: 

Trans Fatty Acids in Shortening Most difficult challenge has been to replace trans fat in shortening Solid fats are desirable in baked products Saturated fats were replaced by hydrogenated (trans) fats when health issues surrounding sat fat became known Science supports the link between trans fatty acids heart disease risk Trans fats elevate LDL cholesterol levels, lower HDL Major source of dietary trans-fat is partially hydrogenated vegetable oils

Trans Fat Replacement in Reduced Fat Snacks : 

Trans Fat Replacement in Reduced Fat Snacks In the case of baked snacks (crackers and cookies) reformulation to reduce trans fat has been a multi-year research and development effort Liquid vegetable oils would be ideal ingredients because of their inherently low levels of trans-fat and saturated fat A non-hydrogenated, RBD (refined, bleached and deodorized) soybean oil was found to perform “adequately” in Nabisco’s SnackWells crackersand cookies owing to their low fat andreduced fat formulas (generally 2-3grams of total fat per serving)

Trans Fat Replacement in Full Fat Snacks: 

Trans Fat Replacement in Full Fat Snacks In comparable “full fat” products that contained > 4 fat grams per serving, the food matrix was insufficient to hold the liquid oil in place, Liquid soybean oil “drained” out of such a product by the action of gravity, and failed to deliver the buttery, signature flavor and light open texture expected by Ritz cracker consumers.

Trans Fat Replacement Solution: 

Trans Fat Replacement Solution First practical, low trans-fat solution involved the use of high melting point mono- and di-glyceride emulsifiers as minor components in liquid oils Used with Triscuit crackers, a product with a highsurface area provided by a woven wheat structure The oil blend containing 4-8% emulsifierwas topically applied to this productimmediately upon its exit from the oven Worked with Triscuit and Wheat Thins, but not Ritz Needed to change the fat in the dough, as well as that brushed on top of the cracker

Fat Reduction/ Replacement: Summary: 

Fat Reduction/Replacement: Summary Fat mimetics replace the fat in a product, though often sacrificing texture and/or flavor. For this reason, partial fat replacement is generally a more consumer acceptable approach Trans fatty acids can be replaced , though it is very difficult to remove these fats from baked foods. However, withinvestment of significantresearch efforts, successis possible and in factcan drive sales growth

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