Confined Space Entry

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Department of University Safety & Assurances

What you need to know: 

Training topics include: confined space identification and hazards air monitoring controlling hazards communications blowers emergency retrieval system use emergency procedures What you need to know

Step I: What is a confined space?: 

Step I: What is a confined space? (a) Is large enough and so configured that an employee can enter and perform assigned work; (b) Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit, and (c) Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.

Examples at UWM: 

Examples at UWM manholes and pits steam pit electrical pit signal pit storm drain manhole sump pit tanks at the Power Plant others - see inventory UWM Steam Pit #1 at Power Plant

Examples at UWM: 

Examples at UWM Pit 1: Outside Power Plant

Examples at UWM: 

Examples at UWM Pit 2: Between Holton and Merrill Halls

Examples at UWM: 

Examples at UWM Pit 3: between Chapman and Sandburg

Examples at UWM: 

Examples at UWM Pit 4: East side of Lapham Hall

Examples at UWM: 

Examples at UWM Pit 5: Southeast of Lapham Hall

Examples at UWM: 

Examples at UWM Pit 6: North of Child Care Center

Examples at UWM: 

Examples at UWM Pit 7: Goat Hill

Examples at UWM: 

Examples at UWM Pit 8: South of Lapham Hall

Examples at UWM: 

Examples at UWM Pit 10: South of EMS

Examples at UWM: 

Examples at UWM Pit 11: Union

Examples at UWM: 

Examples at UWM Pit 12?:

Examples at UWM: 

Examples at UWM Pit 13: Mitchell Hall

Examples at UWM: 

Examples at UWM Pit #14: Southwest corner of Golda Meir Library

Examples at UWM: 

Examples at UWM Signal Pit outside Power Plant

Examples at UWM: 

Examples at UWM Permit-required Confined spaces at the Power Plant

Examples at UWM: 

Examples at UWM Steam Pit west of Mitchell Hall Mitchell north-wing roof steam line chase

Examples at UWM: 

Examples at UWM Acid Neutralization Pit in Lapham Hall Serviced by Outside Contractor

Examples at UWM: 

Examples at UWM Pump House

Other Hazardous Spaces: 

Other Hazardous Spaces Elevator Pits Lockout/Tagout Sump Pits?

Step 2: Is It A Permit-Required Confined Space?: 

Use this flowchart to determine if an enclosed space is a “confined space” and whether a “confined space” is a “permit-required confined space” Step 2: Is It A Permit-Required Confined Space?

Step III: Hierarchy of Permit-Spaces : 

Step III: Hierarchy of Permit-Spaces (c)(7) Reclassification-Hazards Eliminated (c)(5) Alternate Entry-Hazards Controlled (by continuous forced air ventilation) (c)(4) Permit Space Entry-Hazards Cannot be Eliminated nor Controlled

Hierarchy of Permit-Spaces: 

Hierarchy of Permit-Spaces Refer to Handout

C4 Permit Confined Space: 

C4 Permit Confined Space Lapham Hall and Chemistry--the laboratory fume hood system “Gas Chambers”

C4 Permit Confined Space: 

C4 Permit Confined Space

C5 Alternate Entry with Continuous Ventilation: 

C5 Alternate Entry with Continuous Ventilation

C5 Alternate Entry with Continuous Ventilation: 

C5 Alternate Entry with Continuous Ventilation Electrical Pits Signal Pits Steam Pits

C5 Alternate Entry -Hazards Controlled by Continuous Ventilation : 

C5 Alternate Entry -Hazards Controlled by Continuous Ventilation

C7 Hazards Eliminated: 

C7 Hazards Eliminated Mitchell Hall Basement Utility Chase. (Looking north, from south access panel. The immediate south end is a C7 Hazard Eliminated space; the rest of the chase is a “C-5” confined space.)

C7 Reclassification-Hazards Eliminated: 

C7 Reclassification-Hazards Eliminated

Confined Space and Hazardous Space Inventory: 

Confined Space and Hazardous Space Inventory

Other Hazardous Spaces: 

Other Hazardous Spaces Some enclosed areas and roofs are labeled with special precautions.

What you need to know: 

What you need to know Be sure you can identify a confined space You need to know what safety measures to take prior to entering a confined space

What Are the Hazards?: 

What Are the Hazards? Oxygen Hazards too much or too little Toxic Hazards gases, vapors or fumes (examples: hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide) Flammable or Explosive Hazards vapors or dusts in concentrations large enough to ignite Engulfment shifting liquid or solid substance that traps employee Configuration Walls or floor which slope downward or taper in can trap an employee Energy Hazards Contact with mechanical or electrical equipment, steam or other sources of heat

Atmospheric Hazards: 

Atmospheric Hazards

Multi Gas Meters: 

Multi-gas meters for confined space/hazardous space air monitoring. Multi Gas Meters Though similar, each instrument has unique features and operating characteristics. These devices measure "real-time" oxygen content, flammability/explosion potential, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations.

What is Air?: 

What is Air?

Hazardous Atmospheres: 

Hazardous Atmospheres Asphyxiating (simple and chemical) Flammable Toxic

Location of PPS Meter: 

Location of PPS Meter Multi-gas meters are kept in Mitchell Hall B8

Abbreviations: Flammable: 

Abbreviations: Flammable UEL % Upper Explosive Limit LEL % Lower Explosive Limit ALARM at 10% LEL Example: Gasoline

Methane (CH4): 

Methane (CH4) Natural gas, marsh gas, swamp gas Due to gas leak or organic decay Colorless/odorless flammable gas, or scented LEL = 5%; UEL = 15% I s Methane Toxic?

Carbon Dioxide (CO2): 

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Colorless, odorless, noncombustible gas Heavier than air Common in solid and compressed liquid forms Carbonation Inserting Organic decay (grain elevators, sewers, storage bins, wells) Fermentation (digesters, molasses pits, beer and wine vats

Abbreviations: Toxicants: 

Abbreviations: Toxicants ppm parts per million 1% = 10,000 ppm IDLH Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health PEL Permissible Exposure Limit TLV Threshold Limit Value TWA 8-hour Time Weighted Average STEL Short Term Exposure Limit (15 min)

Carbon Monoxide (CO): 

Carbon Monoxide (CO) Colorless, odorless gas Slightly lighter than air Chemical asphyxiant Primary source: incomplete combustion of organic material Gasoline-fueled combustion engines

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S): 

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Sewer gas, stink gas (rotten eggs) Odor threshold: 0.02-0.2 ppm Colorless, flammable gas Heavier than air




Physical Hazards






Lockout/Tagout Lockout/Tagout (LOTO) is an integral component of any confined space management program. Confined space entry procedures and LOTO are not simply OSHA and DILHR mandated work rules, but are part of an effective safety/risk management program. Checking the 'key-box' and LOTO procedures posted adjacent to the worksite at Boiler #1 in the Heat Plant


Noise Noise can be amplified because of the design or acoustic properties of a confined space. Excessive noise can permanently damage hearing as well as affect communications regarding work performed or warnings.

Other Atmospheric Conditions: 

Other Atmospheric Conditions While not an air contaminant, high temperatures and high humidity can make work uncomfortable in some locations such as steam pits

Falling Objects: 

Falling Objects Workers in confined spaces should be aware of the potential for falling objects. In particular, hazards are prevalent in spaces that have topside openings for entry and where work is being done above the worker.

Other Hazards: 

Other Hazards

Other Hazards: 

Other Hazards


Psychological Hazards

Psychological Hazards: 

Psychological Hazards These include claustrophobia or other problems associated with being in a dark, cramped or isolated space. Such hazards can be magnified by a worker’s physical condition. A person in poor physical condition may become easily fatigued.

Equipment & Emergency Retrieval: 

Equipment & Emergency Retrieval


Communication Alert supervisor upon entering and leaving For Permit Space Entry, maintain contact with attendant throughout entire scheduled operation


Ventilators/Blowers Always push clean air in If using a portable generator to power blower, make sure exhaust from generator is positioned downward from the confined space If using an extension cord to power blower, use GFCI cord Do not use blowers in enclosed spaces where damaged asbestos exists

Purge Times: 

Purge Times

Safety Equipment: 

Safety Equipment Do not enter a confined space without hands-on training in use of equipment

Safety Equipment: 

Body Harness: Straps which may be secured about an employee in a manner that will distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoulders with means for attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system Safety Equipment

Safety Equipment: 

Safety Equipment Adjusting harness Your harness must fit and be adjusted correctly in order to work comfortably

Safety Equipment: 

Lanyard: A flexible line used to secure a body belt or body harness to a lifeline or directly to a point of anchorage. Safety Equipment Lanyards

Safety Equipment: 

Connector: A device used to couple (connect) parts of the personal fall arrest system, such as a carabiner, or it may be an integral component of part of the system (such as a buckle or “D-ring” sewn into a body belt or body harness, or a snap-hook spliced or sewn to a lanyard or self-retracting lanyard.) Carabiners Safety Equipment

Safety Equipment: 

Lifeline: A line provided for direct or indirect attachment to a worker’s body belt, body harness, lanyard or deceleration device. Such lifelines may be horizontal or vertical in application Safety Equipment Retractable life lines

Other PPE: 

Other PPE Hard Hat Boots Safety Glasses

Protecting Openings to Confined Spaces: 

Protecting Openings to Confined Spaces When opening is in a public walkway, ADA compliant barricades must be set up to protect the pedestrian traffic from all directions. Barricades must be lit during hours of darkness. When out of pedestrian traffic and sidewalks, tripod and attendant should be sufficient to protect public from confined space openings.

Assembling Tripod: 

Assembling Tripod Extend legs so that the tripod will stand at least 8’ above the opening Fully extend the legs if using tripod on “built -up” manholes Use better body mechanics

Attaching Winch to Tripod: 

Attaching Winch to Tripod

Attaching Lifeline to Tripod: 

Attaching Lifeline to Tripod Disconnect the pulley assembly Run lifeline over the pulley Reconnect the pulley assembly

Attaching and Testing Winch: 

Attaching and Testing Winch

Positioning Tripod: 

Positioning Tripod Adjust the legs so that the pulley is centered over the opening of the confined space

Emergency Response: 

Emergency Response

Entry Supervisor’s Duties : 

Entry Supervisor’s Duties The authorized entry supervisor’s duties include the following: Know space hazards including information on the mode of exposure, signs or symptoms and consequences of exposure Verify emergency plans and specified entry conditions such as permits, tests, procedures and equipment before allowing entry Terminate entry and cancel permits when entry operations are completed or if a new condition exists Take appropriate measures to remove unauthorized entrants Ensure that entry operations remain consistent with the entry permit and that acceptable entry conditions are maintained

Emergency Retrieval: 

Emergency Retrieval All UWM workers will be trained to do non-entry rescue Rescue involving entry into the confined space will be done by the Milwaukee Fire Department Urban Rescue Team

Non-Entry Rescue: 

Non-Entry Rescue DO NOT ENTER THE CONFINED SPACE YOURSELF!! Call for help. Use your two way communication to get assistance. Call campus police at 9-911. Relay your location, the nature of the incident and emphasize the incident has occurred in a confined space. While awaiting help, use retrieval system to get your partner out of the space, only if the rescue is a simple vertical withdrawal.

Non-Entry Rescue: 

Non-Entry Rescue Do not move your partner if you suspect a head or neck injury has occurred. Do not attempt a non-entry rescue if the person would be dragged around a corner or between obstacles which could entangle your partner.


Review If you are involved at all in confined space work, be sure you are comfortable with emergency procedures

Potential Hazards: 

Potential Hazards Identify the potential hazards of this confined space

Is This Safe?: 

Is This Safe? Is this Safe?

Is This Safe?: 

Is This Safe? INCORRECT Even putting your head into confined space without ventilation and monitoring can be dangerous

Is This Safe?: 

Is This Safe? CORRECT Confined space should be ventilated before entry.


Conclusion Remember – A safe worker is a happy worker!

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