Dr. Rene W. Pinkihan

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FEEDING VALUE OF ASIAN SWAMP EEL (Monopterus albus) MEAL AS FISH MEAL SUBSTITUTE IN BROILER DIETS

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FEEDING VALUE OF ASIAN SWAMP EEL ( Monopterus albus ) MEAL AS FISH MEAL SUBSTITUTE IN BROILER DIETS Rene W. Pinkihan Ifugao State University

FEEDING VALUE OF ASIAN SWAMP EEL (Monopterus albus) MEAL AS FISH MEAL SUBSTITUTE IN BROILER DIETS:

FEEDING VALUE OF ASIAN SWAMP EEL ( Monopterus albus ) MEAL AS FISH MEAL SUBSTITUTE IN BROILER DIETS R ene W . P inkihan Ifugao State University

The problem:

The problem The persistently escalating cost of feeds and insufficient energy and protein source ingredients are the major problem affecting the livestock, poultry, and feed industries. Feed quality is sacrifice when reliable sources of these ingredients are not abundant. As a consequence, animal performance is adversely affected .

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The proliferation and rapid multiplication of the Asian swamp eel ( Monopterus albus ) in almost all bodies of freshwater is a logical answer to this problem. The Asian swamp eel may be an effective and efficient substitute for imported and expensive Peruvian fish meal as feed protein source in animal feed formulations hence this study .

Objectives of the Study :

Objectives of the Study Generally, this study was conducted to determine and evaluate the feeding values of Asian swamp eel meal as fish meal substitute in broiler diets. Specifically , it aimed to : 1. determine and evaluate the effects of Asian swamp eel meal as fish meal substitute on the growth performance of broilers ; 2. determine the efficiency of protein utilization of broilers ; 3. determine the slaughter yield of broilers with and with out giblets; and , 4. assess the profitability of using Asian swamp eel meal as fish meal substitute in broiler diets .

Methods and Materials:

Methods and Materials Collection and processing of Asian swamp eel swamp eels were caught from rice paddies, irrigation canals and creeks. These were cut-opened to eliminate blood and entrails, and washed in running water to ensure that remaining blood were removed. Fresh eel meat was ground, sundried until sufficiently brittle, and then pulverized into meal form.

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Experimental animals, design and treatments . The experimental day-old broiler chicks were distributed to six treatments in three replications following the randomization procedures of a completely randomized design (CRD). The treatments are as follows: Treatment 1 (D 1 ) - No ASEM (Positive control) Treatment 2 (D 2 ) - 25% ASEM as partial substitute for fish meal Treatment 3 (D 3 ) - 50% ASEM as partial substitute for fish meal Treatment 4 (D 4 ) - 75% ASEM as partial substitute for fish meal Treatment 5 (D 5 ) – 100% ASEM as total substitute for fish meal Treatment 6 (D6) – Commercial feed (Negative control)

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Experimental diet formulation Three types of diets (chick booster mash, broiler starter mash and broiler finisher mash) were formulated. The experimental diets were formulated using the following feed ingredients: ASEM , yellow corn, rice bran (D 1 ), soybean oil meal, copra meal, fish meal (Peruvian) dicalcium phosphate (DCP ),coco oil, mycotox , salt, and concentrated multivitamins. Diet 1 or the positive control diet contained the same ingredients with that of diets 2, 3 and 4, with the exclusion of ASEM. Diet 5 also contained the same ingredients with that of diets 2, 3 and 4 except fish meal. Sarimanok broiler feed, represented the commercial feed or the negative control diet, as Diet 6.

Experimental Procedures :

Experimental Procedures E xperimental birds were randomly distributed into identical fabricated cages. They were immediately given dextrose and electrolytes via the drinking water. At five days old, they were intra-nasally immunized against Newcastle disease (B 1 strain). They were brooded with correct brooding temperature Birds in all treatment groups were reared up to 35 days of age

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Feeding The experimental diets were fed considering the life cycle feeding system for broiler. The diets were placed on the wide-brimmed tray feeders during the first day up to the first week of feeding. Later, feeds for all treatment groups were placed in automatic bell-type feeders . Estimated weekly feed consumption per experimental diet was weighed before it was fed to the chicks. Feeds were fed ad libitum and drinking water was made available at all times.

Data Collection:

Data Collection Body weight The initial body weight of the chicks was taken as the group weight for each replication prior to distribution to their respective treatment groups. Weekly weight was monitored and recorded to determine growth trend that maybe attributed to the dietary treatments . Weekly weighing was done in the morning. Final weight was taken at the termination of the study.

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Gain- in body weight . Weekly weight was monitored and recorded to determine the gain in body weight. The difference between the initial and final weights represented the final gain in weight of the broilers at the end of the experiment . Growth rate Growth rate . This is the rate of increase in growth or weight gain per unit of time. Growth rate was based from the weekly gain in weights using an equation modified from Olusanya and Heath (1985 ). GR= W 2 – W 1 t

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Feed consumption (FC) Feed consumption was recorded and summarized on weekly basis. The cumulative feed consumption taken as the difference between total weekly feed allocation and the unconsummated amount from the said allocation at the end of the feeding period. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) . This is the amount of feeds needed to produce a unit gain in weight. This was determined by dividing the average feed consumption by the average gain in weight of the broilers. Protein Efficiency Ratio. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) is based on the weight gain of a test subject divided by its intake of a particular food protein during the test period. PER = Gain in body weight (g) Protein consumed (g)

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Slaughter yield . Two finished broilers (one male and one female) were randomly taken from each treatment as samples. The sample birds were fasted for a 12-hour period before slaughter. The following data were collected : Live weight of the samples- These were recorded after fasting prior to slaughter Dressed weight of the samples- Weights of samples with and without giblets were recorded after bleeding, cleaning, evisceration and removal of the head and shanks. Dressing Percentage(DP) = average dressed weight X 100 average live weight The economy of using the diets . The economic benefit of the experimental diets was assessed based on computed average cost of feed per kilogram gain in body weight and the income over feed cost . Statistical tool. All data were statistically analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Significant differences among treatment means were compared using the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT).

Result and Discussion :

Result and D iscussion Figure 1. Initial weight, weekly and final weight of broilers No significant difference was noted on the initial weight of the experimental birds The average initial weight of the experimental broiler chicks ranged from 53.67 to 55.00 g.

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Weekly weights Commercial diet-fed Broilers noted the heaviest weight which is significantly different from the ASEM fed broilers during the 1st week of feeding. Commercial diet-fed broilers maintained their weekly weight advantage over ASEM-fed birds during the 2 nd week of feeding. Broilers fed with 25% ASEM followed this weight advantage over other ASEM –fed birds except those that were fed with 50% ASEM diet . Broilers fed with 100% ASEM diet were heavier than commercial diet-fed birds, but not significantly heavier than those fed with other ASEM diets during the 3 rd week. Except the 50% ASEM-fed broilers, weekly weight of birds in other ASEM diets were comparable with those that were fed with commercial diet. Broilers in the 0% ASEM diet had the lowest weight during the said week

Final weight of the experimental broilers :

Final weight of the experimental broilers Final weight of the experimental birds varied significantly. Broilers fed with 100% ASEM performed comparably with commercial diet-fed birds. Broilers fed with 0% ASEM diet had the lowest final weight.

Table 1: Weekly gain in-body weight:

Table 1: Weekly gain in-body weight Treatments Initial Weight, g Weekly Gain in Weight, g First Second Third Fourth Fifth I Diet with 0% ASEM) 55.00 61.67 b 170.67 b 274.33 e 323.33 c 278.00 c II Diet with 25% ASEM 54.00 71.00 b 218.33 a 345.67 c 373.00 bc 264.00 c III Diet with 50% ASEM 55.00 66.67 b 195.00 ab 376.67 c 434.00 ab 284.67 bc IV Diet with 75% ASEM 54.00 67.67 b 175.00 b 419.00 b 433.33 ab 327.33 bc V Diet with 100% ASEM 54.33 65.00 b 165.67 b 458.67 a 493.67 a 361.67 b VI (Commercial feed) 53.67 105.33 a 227.67 a 298.00 de 482.00 a 459.00 a F-Computed 0.26 ns 6.28** 5.17** 34.16** 6.39** 8.26** cv, % 3.5 15.35 10.36 5.77 10.53 13.39 Note : Values followed with common superscript are not significantly different at 5% level of significance by DMRT.

Average weekly gain-in weight:

Average weekly gain-in weight Highly significant variations on weekly weight gain were observed among experimental broilers in the different treatments. These variations were noted from the first to the last week of feeding. Commercial diet-fed broilers outweighed all ASEM diet-birds during the 1 st week of feeding the experimental diets. Broilers fed with 25% and 50% ASEM diets however, were able to attain statistically similar weight gains with birds that were fed with commercial diet during the second week. It was noted that except 50% ASEM-fed broilers, weight gains of other ASEM-fed birds were lower compared to commercial diet-fed birds during the 1 st and 2 nd weeks of feeding.

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ASEM diet-fed broilers however, were able to cope up in the 3 rd week of the experiment, when weight gains were higher than those of the commercial diet-fed birds. Lowest weight gains were observed among 0% ASEM-fed broilers. Generally, it was observed that experimental broilers gained maximum weight during the fourth week then declined towards the fifth or last week of feeding. This growth pattern followed the S-shaped growth curve of all organisms, where normally growing animal increases its body mass slowly at first, then enters a period of accelerated growth when body mass increases rapidly, then reaches a stage when growth slows down markedly

Figure 2: Average weekly gain-in weight of broilers fed with different levels of Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) meal as fish meal substitute in broiler diet showing the S-Shaped growth curve:

Figure 2: Average weekly gain-in weight of broilers fed with different levels of Asian swamp eel ( Monopterus albus ) meal as fish meal substitute in broiler diet showing the S-Shaped growth curve

Figure 3: Final weight gain of the experimental broilers. Final gain in weight significantly differed among birds in all treatments. Birds fed with commercial diet outweighed the ASEM diet fed broilers except for the birds fed with 100% ASEM diet. Increasing the substitution level of fish meal with ASEM tended to increase weight gain. :

Figure 3: Final weight gain of the experimental broilers . Final gain in weight significantly differed among birds in all treatments. Birds fed with commercial diet outweighed the ASEM diet fed broilers except for the birds fed with 100% ASEM diet. Increasing the substitution level of fish meal with ASEM tended to increase weight gain. Note: Values followed with common superscript are not significantly different at 5% level of significance by DMRT

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Weekly growth rate Average growth rate of broilers significantly differed . Broilers fed with 100% ASEM and commercial diets had the fastest growth rate on the 3 rd and 4 th weeks of feeding, which differed significantly from broilers fed with 0% ASEM .

Figure 4: Average weekly growth rate of broilers fed with different levels of Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) meal as fish meal substitute in broiler diet showing the S-Shaped growth curve:

Figure 4: Average weekly growth rate of broilers fed with different levels of Asian swamp eel ( Monopterus albus ) meal as fish meal substitute in broiler diet showing the S-Shaped growth curve

Table 2: Average weekly feed consumption:

Table 2: Average weekly feed consumption TREATMENT Average Weekly Feed Consumption First Second Third Forth Fifth I Diet with 0% ASEM) 116.67 b 216.67 b 502.00 d 591.00 966.00 b II Diet with 25% ASEM 116.67 ab 225.00 b 566.67 bc 608.33 969.00 b III Diet with 50% ASEM 116.00 ab 230.33 b 571.67 b 611.67 963.33 b IV Diet with 75% ASEM 109.00 b 219.00 b 541.67 c 594.67 1020.00 b V Diet with 100% ASEM 110.00 b 217.33 b 549.33 bc 625.00 993.33 b VI (Commercial feed) 123.33 a 292.00 a 603.33 a 632.67 1083.33 a F-Computed cv, % 3.30* 4.32 4.16* 10.62 15.73** 2.67 0.93 ns 4.80 6.39** 3.19 Note: Values followed with common superscript are not significantly different at 5% level of significance by DMRT

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Weekly feed consumption With the exclusion of the fourth week, weekly feed consumption of the experimental broilers significantly differed almost entirely of the feeding period. Highest feed consumption was observed among commercial diet-fed broilers, but this did not significantly differ from that of 0 and 25% ASEM diet-fed broilers during the first week of feeding. All ASEM-based diet-fed broilers including those fed with 0% ASEM diet consumed statistically similar amount of feeds during the first week of the study.

Cumulative feed consumption. Consistent with weekly feed consumption, cumulative feed intake of commercial broiler diet-fed broilers was significantly higher than those of ASEM diet-fed birds. No significant differences on cumulative feed consumption were noted among the ASEM diet-fed broilers. Compared to commercial diet-fed birds with significantly increased feed intake, ASEM diet-fed broilers have maintained lower feed intakes. :

Cumulative feed consumption. Consistent with weekly feed consumption, cumulative feed intake of commercial broiler diet-fed broilers was significantly higher than those of ASEM diet-fed birds. No significant differences on cumulative feed consumption were noted among the ASEM diet-fed broilers. Compared to commercial diet-fed birds with significantly increased feed intake, ASEM diet-fed broilers have maintained lower feed intakes . Note: Values followed by common superscript are not significantly different at 5% level of significance by DMRT.

Table 3: Average weekly and final feed conversion ratio:

Table 3: Average weekly and final feed conversion ratio TREATMENT Average Weekly Feed Conversion Ratio First Second Third Forth Forth I Diet with 0% ASEM) 1.96 a 1.29 1.85 ab 1.86 a 1.86 a II Diet with 25% ASEM 1.66 a 1.03 1.64 bc 1.64 ab 1.64 ab III Diet with 50% ASEM 1.74 a 1.18 1.52 cd 1.41 bc 1.41 bc IV Diet with 75% ASEM 1.64 a 1.25 1.30 de 1.38 bc 1.38 bc V Diet with 100% ASEM 1.73 a 1.32 1.20 e 1.27 c 1.27 c VI (Commercial feed) 1.17 b 1.28 2.03 a 1.32 c 1.32 c F-Computed 3.52* 2.39 ns 17.02** 7.32** 7.32** cv, % 14.57 9.67 8.45 9.81 9.81 Note: Values followed by common superscript are not significantly different at 5% level of significance by DMRT.

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Weekly feed conversion ratio With the exception of the 2 nd week, significant differences on weekly FCR of the experimental broilers were noted until the last week of the experiment Comparison of means show that commercial diet- and 75% ASEM diet-fed broilers were the most efficient feed converters during the 1 st week of the study. Feed conversion ability of other ASEM diet-fed broilers however, were as efficient as that of 75% ASEM diet-fed birds . Feed conversion ratio did not differ among experimental broilers in all dietary treatment groups during the 2 nd week of feeding.

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There was a significant change however in FCR during the third week. Broilers fed with 100 and 75% ASEM diets registered the least feed intake to produce a kilogram of weight gain No significant differences in FCR were noted among broilers that were fed with 50, 75 and 100% ASEM diets when compared to birds fed with commercial diet during the 4 th week of feeding Commercial diet-fed broilers were highly efficient feed converters during the last week of the experiment, but not more efficient than the 50, 75 and 100% ASEM diet-fed broilers. Least efficient feed converters were broilers fed with 0% and 25% ASEM diets.

Figure 5: Average final feed conversion ratio The graph represent that birds fed with 100% ASEM diet were better feed converters than birds in other ASEM diets. However, there is no significant difference when compared to the FCR of commercially fed broilers :

Figure 5: Average final feed conversion ratio The graph represent that b irds fed with 100% ASEM diet were better feed converters than birds in other ASEM diets . However, there is no significant difference when compared to the FCR of commercially fed broilers Note: Values followed by common superscript are not significantly different at 5% level of significance by DMRT.

Table 4: Average protein efficiency:

Table 4: Average protein efficiency TREATMENT Broiler ration Chick booster Broiler starter Broiler finisher 1 I (no ASEM) 2.31 b 2.63 c 1.92 d 2 II (25% ASEM) 2.87 a 3.03 bc 1.89 cd 3 III (50% ASEM) 2.52 ab 3.38 b 2.09 c 4 IV (75% ASEM) 2.38 b 3.66 ab 2.25 c 5 V ( 100% ASEM) 2.24 b 3.95 a 2.49 b 6 VI (Commercial feed) 2.39 b 2.77 c 2.90 a F-Computed 3.58* 15.96** 45.38 ** CV,%- 8.42 6.94 4.39 Note: Values followed with common superscript are not significantly different at 5% level of significance by DMRT.

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Protein efficiency ratio (PER) Significant differences on PER of broiler chicks fed with different levels of ASEM as fish meal substitute in chick booster diets. Broiler chicks that were fed with chick booster diets containing 25 and 50% ASEM utilized dietary protein more efficiently than chicks fed with 75 and 100% ASEM, 0% ASEM, and commercial diets. For broilers fed with broiler starter ration, highest PER value was observed among birds fed with 100 %ASEM diet Broilers fed with 75% ASEM diets however, utilized protein as efficiently as 100% ASEM diet-fed birds. Commercial diet- and 0% ASEM diet-fed broilers were the least efficient in protein utilization during the starter stage

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Except with commercial diet-fed broilers, PER of ASEM diet-fed birds including those fed with 0% ASEM diet dropped during the finisher stage. Commercial diet-fed broilers registered the highest PER value during the finisher stage Least PER value was noted among 25% ASEM diet-fed broilers during the finisher stage . Across life stages however, broilers fed with 75 and 100%ASEM diets have the most efficient average protein utilization compared to the PER of broilers fed with the other diets

Table 5: Dressing percentage (%) with and with out giblets of finished broilers :

Table 5: Dressing percentage (%) with and with out giblets of finished broilers TREATMENT With giblets With out giblets I Diet with no ASEM 80.47 76.11 II Diet with 25% ASEM 80.47 75.15 III Diet with 50% ASEM 81.07 75.91 IV Diet with 75% ASEM 81.76 77.03 V Diet with100% ASEM 82.34 77.11 VI Commercial feed 80.64 75.16 GRAND MEAN 81.13 76.08 F-computed 1.88 ns 0.45 ns CV,% 12.63 2.29

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Dressing percentage (DP) Inclusion of different levels of Asian swamp eel meal in the diets did not have a significant effect on dressing percentage with and without giblets of the experimental birds . Dressing percentage of broilers with giblets ranged from 80.47 to 82.34% while DP without giblets ranged from 0.75.15 to 77.11%,

Economic Efficiency of Asian Swap Eel Meal as Fish Meal Substitute in Broiler Diets Return above feed cost increased with increasing inclusion levels of ASEM as fish meal substitute in broiler diets. Highest RAFC was derived from 100% ASEM diet-fed birds due to minimal feed consumption and better feed and protein efficiency. :

Economic Efficiency of Asian Swap Eel Meal as Fish Meal Substitute in Broiler Diets Return above feed cost increased with increasing inclusion levels of ASEM as fish meal substitute in broiler diets. Highest RAFC was derived from 100% ASEM diet-fed birds due to minimal feed consumption and better feed and protein efficiency .

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Cost of feed per unit gain in weight. Broilers fed with 100% ASEM diet incurred the least CFG because of more efficient feed conversion, high protein efficiency ratio, and lower feed cost . Broilers fed with commercial feed incurred highest CFG due to greater feed consumption and higher unit cost of commercial feed, and not necessarily poor weight gains .

Conclusion:

Conclusion The study showed that complete substitution of the fish meal component of broiler diets with ASEM tended to increase and improve bird’s performance. Broilers fed diets with different levels ASEM performed better than birds fed with the positive control diet, and comparable to those fed with commercial feed as to gain in weight, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio. Dressing percentage of ASEM-fed broilers were comparable to birds in the control diets. The slightly higher absolute DP value of 50, 75 and 100% ASEM fed broilers however, is an economic advantage over 0% ASEM-fed and commercial diet-fed broilers if ASEM diet-fed birds are dressed and sold as whole carcass or choice cuts. Return above feed cost increased with increasing substitution of the fish meal component in the experimental broiler diets with ASEM. Broilers fed with 100% ASEM incurred the highest RAFC due to minimal feed consumption and better feed conversion and protein efficiency. Commercial diet-fed broilers incurred the highest CFG due to greater feed consumption and higher unit cost of commercial feed. Despite of high cost, a higher income was derived from 75% and 100% ASEM-fed birds when compared to birds fed with other diets

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