Aletheia G. Canubas & Dr. Serlie B. Jamias

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THAILFRAMING SUPER TYPHOON HAIYAN BY PHILIPPINE AND INTERNATIONAL NEWS

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Framing Super Typhoon Haiyan by Philippine and International News Aletheia G. Canubas Dr. Serlie B. Jamias College of Development Communication University of the Philippines Los Baños in cooperation with the Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study in Agriculture SEARCA

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TYPHOON HAIYAN. 11/8/2013

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Our perception of reality and how we live out our daily lives are influenced also by how mass media depicts ‘current events’ and how public events are discussed Tuchman 1978 in Scheufele 1999 p. 105 Carey 1989 in Wahl-Jorgensen and Hanitzsch 2009. WE LIVE IN A MEDIATED WORLD ‘… They’ve got earthquakes volcanoes floods tropical cyclones land slides” Natural Hazards Center at the University of Colorado director Kathleen Tierney 2013 The reason is mainly geographic but is compounded by : ‘poverty shoddy construction a booming population’ Borenstein 2013 and of ‘demographic differences’ Bankoff 2003 ‘THE PHILIPPINES GOT IT ALL…’

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How did local and international online news report and frame the Typhoon Haiyan before during and after its landfall RESEARCH QUESTION:

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The Framing Theory which others would call the ‘second order agenda-setting theory’ states that media focuses and frames certain issues and events into a field of meaning. As an approach framing analysis looks at societal issues and how these discourses are ‘constructed and negotiated’ in the media landscape Pan and Kosicki 1993 p. 70. It is important to look at frames as part of the web of culture highlighting the cultural context and the connecting threads of each frame used in media discourses on environment issue. Erving Goffman’s work 1974 has been considered as the predecessor of framing studies in communication. FRAMING

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Articles were selected in pre-defined periods. The timeframe covered for the research was one year and one week Nov 1 2013 - Nov 8 2014 and was divided among the following periods: 1. Pre-Yolanda landfall Nov 1-7 2013 2. During Yolanda landfall Nov 8-30 2013 3. Post-Yolanda landfall Dec 1 2013 - Nov 8 2014 Local online news sites: bulatlat.com and interaksyon.com International news sites: CNN.com and BBC.com METHODOLOGY

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METHODOLOGY: NUMBER OF STORIES MEDIA PHASES Pre-landfall During landfall Post-landfall TOTAL Local Interaksyon 8 81 314 403 Bulatlat 0 20 51 71 Sub-total 8 101 365 474 International BBC 1 70 16 87 CNN 77 16 93 Sub-total 148 32 180 TOTAL 9 248 397 653

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• Qualitative Coding Open Axial Thematic Coding • Use of NVivo Software • Pan and Kosicki’s Framing Devices 1993 Thematic structures can be seen in stories which focus on certain issues or topic and report several events actions or statements related to the issue. These stories may contain certain ‘hypothesis-testing features’ - ‘events are cited sources are quoted and propositions are pronounced - all as logical support for the hypothesis. A story’s rhetoric or the rhetorical structures on the other hand describe the stylistic choices made by journalists as they use either metaphors exemplars catchphrases depictions and visual images to ‘invoke images increase salience of a point or increase vividness or a report’. METHODOLOGY

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Summary of Frames Pre-landfall During landfall Post landfall Warnings Government’s Response Devastation and Typhoon Yolanda’s Strength Providing Aid Looters or Resilient Survivors Government’s Response Lessons learned from Yolanda local and Impact of Yolanda Int’l Providing Aid Int’l and Rehabilitation local Survivors or Victims local and Resilient and Surviving Int RESULTS

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Coverage: Number of stories: 653 On average 11 stories per day in the During landfall phase Frames: Pre-landfall: Warning Frame During landfall: Worked on four similar frames Post-landfall: Worked with one similar frame and 3 pairs of related ones CONCLUSIONS

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• Devastation and impact of the typhoon was the selling point of the news - the news value that international media look for. • Government response was central during and post-landfall • The ‘resilient Filipino’ image was used for calls of aid and relief. The rhetoric of ‘desperate looters’ was used as both effect of government failure plus the typhoon’s devastation. But this does not lend itself to calls for aid. • Rehabilitation frames are mostly used in the after landfall while Providing Aid frames during the landfall itself. CONCLUSIONS

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• Press’ watchdog function must be strengthened • Focus on aid giver must be tapered as news • Disaster events can serve as strong jump off point for DRRM and climate change stories • Locally driven rehab efforts need more coverage IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

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In terms of coverage: - consistent local coverage - comprehensive and collective reporting - harness online platform features for various modes of story telling In terms of framing phases: - serve as watchdog most specially in the post-landfall phase - warning frame must be redundant and informative - lessons learned frame must be harnessed and directed towards policy making In terms of framing local or international: - local and international stories must move beyond ‘victim’ rhetoric - localize the discourse of ‘resilience’ and contextualize in DRRM - local stories must be simplified and laymanized in DRRM-related frames IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

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THANK YOU

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