THE IMPACT OF SEASONALITY OF TOURIST ARRIVALS UPON THE QUALITY OF

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THE IMPACT OF SEASONALITY OF TOURIST ARRIVALS UPON THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF SELF-EMPLOYED PEOPLE IN HANDICRAFT INDUSTRY HK Amarashinge

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Hosted by: THE IMPACT OF SEASONALITY OF TOURIST ARRIVALS UPON THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF SELF-EMPLOYED PEOPLE IN HANDICRAFT INDUSTRY HK Amarashinge

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The Impact of Seasonality of Tourist Arrivals upon the Quality of Life of Self-employed People in Handicraft Industry By : HK Amarashinge , SPP Amarathunga , MBBC Perera and WDS Madhubhashani

Background of the Study:

Background of the Study Key words : Tourism Seasonality Employment Opportunities Handicraft Industry Self employment Quality of Life (QOL)

Problem Statement :

Problem Statement How does the seasonality of tourist arrivals affect the quality of life of self-employed individuals who are employed in handicraft industry?

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Objectives of the Study Main objective To study the impact of seasonality of tourist arrivals upon the quality of life of self-employed individuals who are engaged in handicraft industry . Specific Objective To suggest options for maintaining the QOL of them throughout the year.

Literature Review:

Literature Review Seasonal Impacts " Seasonality as a temporal imbalance in the phenomenon of tourism, which may be expressed in terms of dimensions of such elements as number of visitors, expenditure of visitors, traffic on highways and other forms of transportation, employment and admissions to attractions.“( Srivastava , n.d. ) Employment Opportunities The nature of tourism creates employment opportunities that are open to poor communities either through employment with allowing for a variety of small and medium‐sized operations such as small guest house and restaurant, or individual option such as tour guides and drivers, as well as business for crafts and vendors. With the drop in arrivals effects on income generating capacities of related but non-essential tourism services, such as guides, souvenirs and handicrafts ( Frenando and Meedeniye , 2009).

Cont…..:

Cont ….. Self-employment Ateljevic (2009) explains that Small Tourism Firms (STFs) are, in both developed and developing countries are clearly a vital, and also link to creative product development and innovative entrepreneurship which are characterized by being small in scale and scope, had operations and financial support rotating around family units and the average gross income was relatively low. Quality of Life In line with Kim (2002 ), following Figure illustrates that overall quality of life is affected by residents’ sensitivity of various tourism impacts such as economic, social, cultural, and environmental impact. Further, it shows that QOL is determined through various forms of life dimensions: material well-being, community well-being, emotional well-being, and health and safety well-being ( Aref , 2011). However , tourism impacts affect particular life dimensions to articulate the quality of life in general .

Cont.…..:

Cont.….. Tourism Impact Model of Quality of Life ( Source: Kim, 2002)

Methodology:

Methodology Conceptual Model of the Study Research Hypothesis: H1 : There is a statistically significant impact of seasonality on quality of life of self-employed individuals in handicraft industry .

Cont……..:

Cont …….. The nature of data : Both Primary and Secondary data Research Design: Survey Based Data collection tools: Questionnaire - used to gather information on family backgrounds, living conditions and changes that took place with the seasonality of tourist arrival in the industry. Annual Statistical Reports of SLTDA- used to identify the seasonal pattern. Data analyzing method: Factor analysis and Paired sample T- Test

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Selected Sample: Both manufactures and retailers in handicraft industry. Empirical study took place at coasts of Hikkaduwa area The highest foreign guest nights amounting to 1,505,995 in tourist hotels are in the South Coast region (ASR-SLTDA ,2011 ). A three to four kilometer long spread on both side of the road and along the beach is seen mostly affected by the tourist industry ,Campbell and Niven’s study (as cited in Handaragama , 2000 ). Convenience of the study. Sample Size: (Source: Survey Data)

Data Analysis:

Data Analysis H0: M p = M op H1: M p ‡ M op Significance Level; ᾱ = 0.05 Critical Values: p - value = Sig.(2 - tailed) ≤ 0.05   Output Table : Overall QOL Paired Samples Test     Paired Differences t df Sig. (2-tailed)     Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference     Lower Upper Pair 1 QQOL - SQOL 2.84949 4.43246 .57706 1.69439 4.00460 4.938 58 .000 Conclusion p value < 0.05 At the 95% confidence interval, there are enough evidence to conclude that there is a statistically significant difference in the mean of quality of life which is implied from particular life dimensions for two seasons.

Further Analysis and Findings:

Further Analysis and Findings Conclusion Life dimensions Mean Differences (p-op) P value result Material Well-being Positive p< 0.05 reject H0 Community Well-being Negative p< 0.05 reject H0 Emotional Well-being Negative p< 0.05 reject H0 Health and Safety Well-being Negative p< 0.05 reject H0 Four dimensions have been considered separately. At the 95% confidence interval, there are enough evidence to conclude that there is a statistically significant mean differences of particular life dimensions for the two seasons. The results of this study indicated that self-employers in the handicraft industry were affected by the seasonal impact in both negative and positive ways. During the peak season, in tourist arrivals have led to generate positive life satisfaction in terms of material well-being whereas negative satisfaction was observed with regard to community, emotional, and health and safety well-being.

Findings:

Findings Current status of quality of life of self-employed individuals in handicraft industry. Earnings always become changeable one . Therefore, most of them have spent middle quality of life except few who were well established in the industry . Influence of seasonal impact on quality of life of the self-employed people in handicraft industry. During the peak season, impact of seasonality positively affected their material well-being with satisfied level of demand, income, economic and financial situation, standard of living, housing, and personal wealth. During the peak season, there is a negative impact in terms of community well-being. Their satisfaction of the community well-being has reduced with low level of social and family relations. During the peak period of tourism, their perception about the emotional well-being is neutral or unsatisfied due to un-leisured life: lack of spare time, and further it is reasoned to weaken their leisure life as well as spiritual life. During the peak time, health and safety well-being also is neutral or unsatisfied. Due to often tourism has a negative impact on the environment, in the form of the production of garbage, and waste and also un-leisured life. Addressing the research questions

Continuing…:

Continuing… Ways of dealing with seasonal impact. They attend to repairs and renovations as well as storing manufacturing items. Some of them go out from industry during the off season and find various other casual jobs. Through finding revenue in peak season to be sufficient for off peak as well through higher price. Finally, some recommendations to reduce the seasonal impact upon the QOL of them. Development of promotional programs focusing on non-traditional markets . Eg : Especially Asia and Middle East countries are not subject to seasonality . Developing a collective bargaining power for handicrafts industry . Beach area in Hikkaduwa is setting up as separate zone for foreigners.

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