REINFORCING SOCIAL COHESION IN A POST-WAR DESTINATION VIA

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REINFORCING SOCIAL COHESION IN A POST-WAR DESTINATION VIA TOURISM Zilmiyah Kamble

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Hosted by: REINFORCING SOCIAL COHESION IN A POST-WAR DESTINATION VIA TOURISM Zilmiyah Kamble

REINFORCING SOCIAL COHESION IN A POST-WAR DESTINATION VIA TOURISM :

REINFORCING SOCIAL COHESION IN A POST-WAR DESTINATION VIA TOURISM Zilmiyah Kamble Taylor’s University, Malaysia zilmi@hotmail.com   Frederic Bouchon Taylor’s University, Malaysia frederic.b@taylors.edu.my 2 nd International Conference on Hospitality & Tourism Management (ICOHT 2014) 2

Outline:

Outline The notion of social cohesion Challenges and discussions Assessing social cohesion A post-war scenario Can tourism reinforce social cohesion? Framework Assessing social cohesion via tourism Conclusion 2 nd International Conference on Hospitality & Tourism Management (ICOHT 2014) 3

The Notion of Social Cohesion:

The N otion of Social Cohesion Key Definitions.. Social Cohesion Vergoloni (2011) 4 Social Psychological Perspective (Moreno & Jennings, 1937; Festinger , 1950) Government Perspective (Kearns & Forrest, 2000; Novy et al, 2012) Researchers’ Perspective ( Kawachi & Berkman , 2000; Moody & White, 2003) Another definition by the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (as quoted in Jenson, 2010) “ the dialectical relationship between mechanisms of social inclusion / exclusion and people’s reactions, perceptions and attitudes to the ways in which these mechanisms operate in producing a sense of belonging to society” (p.6).

The Notion of Social Cohesion:

The Notion of Social Cohesion Complex, multidimensional & functions at multilevel A process that needs to be fostered & maintained Threatened by inequality & social exclusion. 2 nd International Conference on Hospitality & Tourism Management (ICOHT 2014) “ There is little agreement about what social cohesion is, what a socially cohesive society would look like and how public policy actions could help sustain or improve social cohesion ” ( Babacan (2007), p. 143). 5

Challenge & Discussions:

Challenge & Discussions The challenge with multicultural diversity is managing diversity and tackling unity in diversity ( Novy , Swiatek & Moulaert , 2012) Levrau and Loobuyck (2013) argue that due to multiculturalism, national values and social integration declines and policies of multicultural recognition fosters ethnic separatism and reduces social cohesion To foster social cohesion: “ social networks and social capital; common values and a civic culture; place attachment and an intertwining of place and group identity; social order and control; and, social solidarity and a reduction in wealth disparities ” (Kearns and Forrest, 2000 p.999). 6

Assessing Social Cohesion:

Assessing Social Cohesion 2 nd International Conference on Hospitality & Tourism Management (ICOHT 2014) 7

Assessing Social Cohesion:

Assessing Social Cohesion 2 nd International Conference on Hospitality & Tourism Management (ICOHT 2014) 8

A Post-War Scenario:

A Post-War Scenario Reconstruction / Social Cohesion / way forward…? 2 nd International Conference on Hospitality & Tourism Management (ICOHT 2014) Post war countries use tourism in a reconstruction stage as tourism is also a contemporary form of acculturation where currently almost every community and nation, is influenced to varying degrees by tourism ( Jafari , 2005). 9

Post war countries & Tourism:

Post war countries & Tourism 2 nd International Conference on Hospitality & Tourism Management (ICOHT 2014) 10 Post war countries Bosnia Croatia Lebanon Sri Lanka Managing diversity and maintaining Unity in diversity South Africa

Can Tourism Reinforce Social Cohesion?:

2 nd International Conference on Hospitality & Tourism Management (ICOHT 2014) Can Tourism Reinforce Social Cohesion? 11

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12 Tourism is a medium that can contribute to harmonious relationships, social and economic benefits and the scope to break down barriers ( Moufakkir & Kelly, 2010). Tourism is perceived as an instrument of development and in its ability to promote peace ( Jafari , 2005). Post war countries will have to steadily focus on specialised forms of tourism development in their destination development strategies, which will then convince tourists to visit that specific country against similar destinations (Keyser, 2002; Hawkins, Shafer & Rovelstad , 1980) . T ourism brings people together enhancing mutual understanding and increasing international cooperation (Tourism Bill of Rights and Tourist Codes -1985) adopted by the WTO )

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Tourism & Community Development is the theme for World Tourism Day (WTD) 2014 celebrated on 27 September. The very nature of tourism as a people-based economic activity makes it a natural ally in fostering inclusive development and social cohesion. WTD 2014 will focus on the ability of tourism to empower people and provide them with skills to achieve change in their local communities, while highlighting the critical role that community engagement has in advancing sustainable development.  13 World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) Liked ·  June 24  ·  Edited  ·        ·   

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2 nd International Conference on Hospitality & Tourism Management (ICOHT 2014) 14

Selected dimensions & indicators for assessing……:

Selected dimensions & indicators for assessing…… 15 Previous studies of measuring social cohesion have been through quantitative approaches where social cohesion was perceived as an outcome or end result, yet majority of the definitions and discussion of social cohesion have highlighted that social cohesion is not a state or an end result but a continuing or never ending process that needs to be fostered and maintained (Commissariat General du Plan of the French government, 1997; Heyneman & Todoric-Bebic , 2000; Markus & Kirpitchenko , 2007; Jenson, 2010)

Framework:

Framework 16

Assessing Social Cohesion via Tourism:

Assessing Social Cohesion via Tourism 17

Conclusion:

Conclusion Social cohesion is never a fixed or permanent as it depends on many aspects such as good governance, policies, equality, community involvement and social inclusion Tourism has the potential to reinforce social cohesion but does it ? 2 nd International Conference on Hospitality & Tourism Management (ICOHT 2014) 18 “ Tourism Unites and Terrorism Divides ”. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi

References:

References 19

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